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Effective Altruism is a very new discipline. The first steps towards creating a community were made in 2009. Although the movement is young, it has already changed lives of many people and its popularity continues to rise. The idea of effective altruism is deeply rooted in philosophy, hence to understand it better an attempt will be made to reconstruct and present the philosophical framework of Effective Altruism. This part is intended to show the development of utilitarian thought that led to Effective Altruism. I intentionally limited this reconstruction to the views of Peter Singer, as his philosophy inspired many effective altruists, especially at the beginning of the movement. I have tried to show that his earliest works were the first steps on the way to effective altruism. In the second part selected details of the idea will be referred to in order to show the current state of development of this branch of utilitarianism. In the last part, selected doubts and critical remarks will be presented that might be inspiration to adapt Effective Altruism to specific conditions of Central and Eastern Europe. It will be argued that advocacy for Effective Altruism is a fair way for effective altruists in countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Adekunle Anthony Ogunjinmi and Charity Omokeme Braimoh
This study assessed the level of community awareness and participation in ecotourism in Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. Data were collected in communities located in four ranges (i.e. administrative and protection zones) of Old Oyo National Park, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The ranges are Tede, Marguba, Sepeteri, and Oyo-Ile. Seven (7) communities out of 27 that are in Tede range were selected, eight (8) were selected from 12 communities in Marguba range, eight (8) were selected from 17 communities in Sepeteri range while eight (8) were selected from 30 communities in Oyo Ile range. The study was a questionnaire survey involving 150 respondents that were randomly selected from communities in the four (4) ranges of the Park. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s HSD, t-test and logistic regression. Results revealed that 48% of the respondents were aware of ecotourism while 52% were not. Also, 46% participated in ecotourism while 54% did not participate. A relationship exists between ecotourism awareness and participation (p<0.01). Community type (p<0.01) was the only predictor of community awareness of ecotourism while community type (p<0.01) and awareness (p<0.01) were the predictors of participation in ecotourism in the park. Awareness, active involvement of communities in stakeholder meetings, decision-making and provision of start-up capital are important for ecotourism development in the park.
Charity Ogunka-Nnoka, Kingsley Assor, Samuel Onuoha and Peter Amadi
This study was carried out to assess the levels of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and antioxidants present in pumpkin leaf (Telfairia occidentalis), catfish (Clarias anguillarus), and African land snail (Archachatina marginata), obtained from Ebubu and Elele-Alimini communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. The heavy metals and PAHs were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and gas chromatography respectively, while the antioxidants were assayed by conventional methods. Soil samples at Ebubu contained significantly higher Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni contents than that of Elele-Alimini. The pumpkin leaf from Elele-Alimini contained higher Pb, Zn, Cd, and Fe levels. Cr was undetected in the snails from both locations, while Cd and Ni contents of the snails and catfish at both communities were comparable. For the PAHs, the soil samples from Ebubu contained mostly anthracene (93.37 ppm), benzo[k]fluoranthene (74.36 ppm), fluoranthene (72.64 ppm), and acenaphthylene (47.38 ppm), while those from Elele-Alimini contained more of dibenz[a,h]anthracene (38.65 ppm) and naphthalene (20.55 ppm). Pumpkin leaves from Ebubu were mostly composed of naphthalene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, which were undetected in pumpkin leaf samples from Elele-Alimini. In the snail and catfish from Ebubu, acenaphthylene and fluoranthene respectively were the most occurring PAHs, whereas pyrene and phenanthrene respectively had the highest occurrences in snails and catfish from Elele-Alimini. Results for the antioxidant enzymes: catalase and superoxide dismutase in both snails and catfish from Elele-Alimini were significantly higher than those from Ebubu whereas samples from Ebubu contained significantly higher glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The level of toxicants shown in the foods analyzed in this study is suggestive of potentials to pose significant health risks to the populace when consumed.
Thomas Malthus was perceived in history as a man of one idea, of one law, namely, as the author of ‘the law of population’. His ideas have been inspiring hot arguments and discussions for over 200 years. In our article we want to present Thomas Malthus as a profoundly decent man, social thinker, humanist and zealous servant of the ideals of Enlightenment.
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