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Abstract

The Tisza River is the largest tributary of the Danube in Central Europe, and has been subjected to various human interventions including cutoffs to increase the slope, construction of levees to restrict the floodplain, and construction of groynes and revetments to stabilize the channel. These interventions have altered the natural morphological evolution of the river. The aim of the study is to assess the impacts of these engineering works, employing hydrological surveys of 36 cross sections (VO) of the Lower Tisza River for the years of 1891, 1931, 1961, 1976 and 1999. The changes in mean depth and thalweg depth were studied in detail comparing three reaches of the studied section. In general, the thalweg incised during the studied period (1891-1931: 3 cm/y; 1931-1961: 1.3 cm/y and 1976-1999: 2.3 cm/y), except from 1961-1976 which was characterized by aggradation (2 cm/y). The mean depth increased, referring to an overall deepening of the river during the whole period (1891-1931: 1.4 cm/y; 1931-1961: 1.2 cm/y; 1961-1976: 0.6 cm/y and 1976-1999: 1.6 cm/y). The thalweg shifted more in the upper reach showing less stabile channel, while the middle and lower reaches had more stable thalweg. Although the cross-sections subjected to various human interventions experienced considerable incision in the short-term, the cross-sections free from direct human impact experienced the largest incision from 1891-1999, especially along the meandering sections.

Abstract

This study utilized a transparent direct methanol fuel cell, with serpentine channels with a width of 2 mm and an initial depth of 2 mm, and investigated the relationship between the behaviours of carbon dioxide (CO2) slugs, product water accumulations, and voltage fluctuation. It examined the exhaust volumes of CO2 slugs and product water accumulations from the channels over time, comparing an anode channel with a depth of 1.2 mm to one with a depth of 2 mm (without changing the cathode depth of 2 mm, nor the width of 2 mm in both the anode and the cathode). Results indicated that cell voltage fluctuated, rising while CO2 slugs were ejected, and falling between ejections. In the case of an anode channel depth of 2 mm and a lower methanol-water solution flow rate, CO2 slugs were ejected less frequently, so cell voltage fluctuated widely. (Product water accumulations in the cathode had a minimum effect on this cell voltage fluctuation.) In the case of a higher methanol-water solution flow rate, CO2 slugs were ejected more frequently, with less exhaust volume per CO2 slug, reducing the fluctuation in cell voltage. Finally, with an anode channel depth of 1.2 mm, the exhaust volume per CO2 slug became even smaller, and these small CO2 slugs were rapidly ejected. With this shallow depth, the cell voltage increased with a lower methanol-water solution flow rate, but decreased with a higher methanol-water solution flow rate by crossover.

evaluated parameters ( Rosgen 1994 , Schumm 1977 ). The basic morphometric channel depth/ width index from the river mouth to the source is declining, and anomalies are apparent in the Oľšava river section 4 width analysis. A significant decrease in the average width of the river-bed is obvious in the 1st section and is related to anthropogenic modification of the river mouth, and 3rd section loss is connected with neo-tectonic effects ( Maglay et al. 1999 ). Channel down-cutting also reduced the channel width, and this affected the total river-bed deposits area ( Figs

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fraction of the stone chips flows from the crushing centre to the river by overland flow. The deposition of stone chips, in the long run, modifies the bed morphology of a river ( Islam et al. 2020 ). The channel depth and the cross-sectional area have decreased with time, which reduces the cubic capacity of the river, ultimately inducing floods. Conclusion The MRB has a long-standing problem of floods that damage settlements, destroy crops and threaten the transport and communication system. Across the five monitoring stations, the highest flood peaks were observed as 8