References Biodiversity of the Dzharylgach: Modern State and Ways of Conservation. 2000. Kotenko, T. I, Shelyag-Sosonko, Yu. R., eds. Vestnik Zoologii. Special is., 1-240 [In Russian]. Birkun, jr., A. A. 2006. Cetaceans. In: Zaitsev, Y. P., Aleksandrov, B. G., Minicheva, G. G., eds. The North-Western Part of the Black Sea: Biology and Ecology. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 314-332 [In Russian]. Birkun, A. A., Krivokhizhin, S. V., 2003. Results of survey of cetaceans in territorial waters of Ukraine: Assessment of population state of the Red Data Book listed marine mammals
Â. À. Ïåðâàÿ äîñòîâåðíàÿ íàõîäêà ñèðåíû (Mammalia: Sirenia) èç ïîçäíåãî ìèîöåíà Ìîëäàâèè. Mchedlidze G. A. Some Common Traits of the Cetacean History. Metsniereba. - Tbilisi, 1970. - 114 p. - Russian : Ì÷åäëèäçå Ã. À. Íåêîòîðûå îáùèå ÷åðòû èñòîðèè êèòîîáðàçíûõ. Nordmann A. Palaentologie Suedrusslands. - Helsingfors, 1858-1860. - 360 s. Pevzner Ì. À., Lungu À. N., Vangengeym E. À., Basilyan À. E. Occurrences of Vallesian-age hipparion fauna in Moldavia and their placement on the magnetic polarity scale // Int. Geol. Rev. - 1987. - 29 , N 2. - P. 140
Morphology of the Inner Ear in Mammals with Different Ecological Peculiarities in Ontogeny
The inner ear is the first to form, as the core, phylogenetically most ancient formation of the peripheral auditory system both in phylogenesis and in ontogenesis. As the development of the inner ear continues, the other parts of the peripheral auditory system of different evolutionary age start to be formed, and the outer ear is the evolutionary youngest among them. All parts of the peripheral auditory system are multicomponent formations. As opposed to the outer and middle ears, which are characterized by different structural variations and a wide spectrum of adaptable transformations connected with the peculiarities of species ecology, the inner ear possesses a variety of functions in the repre-sentatives of different ecological groups and, therefore, keeps a similar structural organization. Usually, both in the cochlear and vestibular analyzers the topography, form and size of separate components vary. Basically, the anatomic formation of the structures of the inner ear finishes in the early prefetal period, while the cellular differentiation of the sensory epithelium of the cochlea, maculas and cristae in immature-born species continues up to the early stages of postnatal ontogenesis. In mature-born species (cetaceans, ungulates), the differentiation of the inner ear structures is complete by the moment of birth.
Mammals , 10 , 57-68. Frantzis, A., and Herzing D.L. 2002. Mixed-species associations of striped dolphins ( Stenella coeruleoalba ), short- beaked common dolphins ( Delphinus delphis ), and Risso’s dolphins ( Grampus griseus ) in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece, Mediterranean Sea). Aquatic Mammals , 28 (2), 188-197. Herman, L. M. 1990. Cognitive performance of dolphins in visuallyguided tasks. In Sensory abilities of cetaceans (pp. 455-462). Springer, Boston, MA. Hughes, A. 1975. A quantitative analysis of the cat retinal ganglion cell topography. Journal of
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Nusa Penida comprises a group of islands in the south-east of Bali. This archipelago contains a high level of marine biodiversity and has significant tourism potential. In addition, Nusa Penida has aquaculture and fishing areas, which continue to be developed. Efforts towards conservation and sustainable use by means of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important solution to counteract increasing pressure on natural resources due to economic activities. Zoning system arrangements to protect marine biodiversity, as well as sustainable economic activities, form the highest priority in the management of the Nusa Penida MPA.
The paper provides an overview of the coastal ecosystem of Nusa Penida and the potential for sustainable utilization of natural resources, as well as demonstrates the socioeconomic condition of the Nusa Penida community. Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) in 2009 for the marine ecosystems in the waters of Nusa Penida serves as baseline data to provide inputs for defining the MPA, including a zoning system and a management plan.
The ecological survey revealed 1,419 ha of coral reef with 296 species, 230 ha of mangrove with 13 species, and 108 ha of seagrass beds with 8 species. The assessment of fish biodiversity revealed 296 species of fish, including five that are new to science. Nusa Penida’s waters are home to marine megafauna such as sea turtles, sharks and cetaceans, also unique and charismatic fish such as ocean sunfish (Mola mola) and manta rays (Manta birostris), that occur predictably annually.
Marine tourism, seaweed farming and capture fisheries are the main economic activities for the income of the coastal community. Nusa Penida is visited by more than 200,000 tourists each year. The tourists dive in 20 dive-spots arround the waters. There are 308 ha of seaweed farming that produce more than 50 tons per month. About 850 local fishermen depend for their livelihood on the fishing grounds around the waters of Nusa Penida for their livelihood. In total, some 46,000 residents depend on the marine biodiversity of the archipelago for their livelihood.
Destructive fishing and over-fishing are serious threats to the reef ecosystem within the Nusa Penida MPA, as well as to the sustainable fisheries. The lack of a clear zoning system and its attendant regulation of uses for Nusa Penida’s coastal area and marine resources mean potential conflicts between marine tourism, seaweed farming and the fisheries. The establishment of the MPA with a management plan is imperative to regulate the sustainable use of marine resources.
References Abel, O. Ein Stammtype der Delphiniden aus dem Miocän der Halbinsel Taman // Jahrbuch K. K. Geolog. Reichs-Anst. — Wien, 1905. — 55 . — S. 375–392. Amano, M., Miyazaki, N. Geographic variation in skulls of the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena // Mammalia. — 1992. — 56 , N 1. — P. 133–144. Barabash-Nikiforov, I. I. Cetacean fauna of the Black Sea, its composition and origin. — Voronezh : Izdatelstvo Voronezhskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, 1940. — 87 p. — Russian : Барабаш-Никифоров И. И. Фауна китообразных Чёрного моря, её состав и