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multilayer ceramic actuators, Journal of Electroceramics , 20, 225-229. 4. Duran P., Gutierrez D., Tartaj J., Moure C. (2002), Densification behaviour, microstructure development and dielectric properties of pure BaTiO 3 prepared by thermal decomposition of (Ba,Ti)-citrate polyester resins, Ceramics International , 28, 283-292. 5. Ertuğ B. (2013), The overview of the electrical properties of barium titanate American Journal of Engineering Research , 2(8), 1-7. 6. Hackenberger W.S., Pan M.-J., Vedula V., Pertsch P., Cao W., Randall C.A., Shrout T.R. (1998), Effect

References [1] JAFFE B., ROTH R.S., MARZUL L.S., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., 55 (1955), 239. [2] UCHINO K., Ceram. Int., 21 (1995), 309. [3] JAFFE B., COOKJR W.R., JAFFE H., Piezoelectric Ceramics, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 317. [4] HAERTLING G.H., J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 82 (1999), 797. [5] JAFFE B., ROTH R.S., MARZULL S., J. Appl. Phys., 25 (1954), 809. [6] GULLO-LOPEZ F.A., CARBRERE J.M., AGULLORUEDA F., Electro Optics Phenomena, Materials and Applications, Academic Press INC, San Diego, 1994, p. 146. [7] DUTTA S., CHOUDHARY R.N.P., Appl. Phys. A

. [9] The engineering toolbox “Ceramic material properties”, June 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ceramicsproperties-d_1227.html. [10] S. Lagzdina, L. Bidermanis, J. Liepins, U. Sedmalis, “Low Temperature Dolomitic Ceramics”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society , vol. 18, pp. 1717-1720, 1998. [11] L. Krage, L., Bidermanis, L., Vitina I., Gaidukova G., Hodireva, V. Kreilis, “Formation of calcium containing minerals in the low temperature dolomite ceramics”, in IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng ., Elsevier, 25 012006 doi:10

References 1. Chen, D., Wang, Y., E. Ma, Y. Yu, Bao, F., Hu, Z., & Cheng, Y. (2006). Influences of Er 3+ content on structure and upconversion emission of oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals. Materials Chem. and Phys., 95 , 264. 2. Dejneka, M.J. (1998). Transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics, MRS Bulletin, 23 , 57. 3. Kaplan, R., & Bray, P.J. (1963). Electron-spin paramagnetic resonance studies of neutron-irradiated LiF. Phys. Rev. B, 129 , 1919. 4. Fedotovs, A., Elsts, E., Rogulis, U., Gulans, A., Tale, I., Nikl, M., Ichinose N

References CHANG, S. Y., TSAO, L. C., CHIANG1, M. J., CHUANG, T. H., TUNG, C. N. Active soldering of indium tin oxide (ITO) with Cu in air using an Sn3.5Ag4Ti(Ce, Ga) filler. In Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance , 2003, No. 4, pp. 383-389. KOLEŇÁK, R. Solderability of metal and ceramic materials by active solders. Dresden: Forschungszentrum Dresden, 2008. 72 p. ADAMČÍKOVÁ, A. Study of ceramics wetting by lead- free solders , (Štúdium zmáčania keramiky bezolovnatými spájkami). Diploma work. Trnava, 2007. KOLEŇÁK, R. Development of lead

toner B.R., G lass J.T., A msden J.J., Int. J.Mass Spectrom. , 422 (2017), 162. [11] D orczynski M., F abinska W., R oguszczak H., G olonka L., Proc. Device Packaging HiTEC HiTEN & CICMT , (2016), p. 47. [12] D a˛browski A., R ydygier P., C zok M., G olonka L., Microelectron. Int. , 35 (2018), 146. [13] I manaka Y., Multilayered Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) Technology , Springer US, 2005. [14] M akarovic K., M eden A., H rovat M., H olc J., B encan A. D akskobler A., K osec M., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. , 95[2], (2012), 760. [15] A lias R

1. Introduction Lead free dielectric oxide ceramics with high electric permittivity (ε r ), high unloaded quality factor (Q u ) and a near zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ f ) are critical elements in the components, such as resonators, oscillators and filters for wireless communication. For commercial applications, any material used as a dielectric resonator must have ε r > 24, Q u f o > 30,000 GHz and |τ f | ≤ 3 ppm/°C [1] . For certain applications, such as antennas, the requirements for low τ f and high Q u f o are flexible but ε r

1 Introduction Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline solids, partially crystalline and partially amorphous. Due to the presence of both crystalline and residual glassy phase, glass-ceramics possess a combination of valuable properties of both glasses and ceramics [1] . Glass-ceramics have gain importance in recent years due to their remarkable dielectric, structural, mechanical [2] and biocompatible properties [3] which find application in various fields of telecommunication [4] , architecture [5] , and health care [6] . The physical and chemical properties

multiferroic materials with unique properties of porous ceramics, such as high surface area, high strength and high chemical resistivity, could open up a new field of study in advanced materials [ 5 ]. Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO₃ (BFO), is perhaps the only multiferroic material with a coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering at room temperature [ 6 ]. BiFeO₃ possesses a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure with R3c space group, high ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC ~ 830 °C) and G-type antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (TN ~ 370 °C). Since BiFeO₃ is very

1 Introduction Zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) is an important electronic ceramics with excellent mechanical properties [1] . However, due to its particular characteristics related to large volume change accompanying the structural transition from tetragonal to monoclinic, the sintering process necessary to formation of dense grains occurs only at high temperature [2] . Therefore, in the last years, several works based on yttrium-partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) ceramics have been carried out to improve the wear, mechanical, electrical, cytotoxicity and bonding