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References [1] S.R.H. Abadi, M.R. Sebzari, M. Hemati, F. Rekabdar and T. Mohammadi. “Ceramic membrane performance in microfiltration of oily wastewater”, Desalination, vol. 265, no. 1-3, Jan. 2011, pp. 222-228. [2] N.A. Ochoa, M. Masuelli and J. Marchese. “Effect of hydrophilicity on fouling of an emulsified oil wastewater with PVDF/PMMA membranes”, J. Membrane Sci., vol. 226, no. 1-2, Dec. 2003, pp. 203-211. [3] R. Marecik, P. Cyplik and Ł. Chrzanowski. ”Oczyszczanie ścieków rafineryjnopetrochemicznych”, Ecomanager, vol. 11, 2011, pp. 20 -21. [4] J.M. Benito, M

References [1] Abadi SRH, Sebzari MR, Hemati M, Rekabdar F, Mohammadi T. Ceramic membrane performance in microfiltration of oily wastewater. Desalination. 2011;265:222-228. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2010.07.055. [2] Ebrahimi M, Willershausen D, Ashaghi KS, Engel L, Placido L, Mund P, et al. Investigations on the use of different ceramic membranes for efficient oil-field produced water treatment. Desalination. 2010;250(3):991-996. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2009.09.088. [3] Jamaly S, Giwa A, Hasan SW. Recent improvements in oily wastewater treatment: Progress, challenges

References Bonisławska, M., Szaniawska, D. & Kuca, M. (2010). Studies on ceramic membrane application for the treatment of effluent water from fish hatcheries, Monographies of the Environmental Engineering Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences “Membranes and membrane process in environmental protection” , 6, pp. 77–85. (in Polish) Davidson, J., Good, C., Barrows, F.T., Welsh, C., Kenney P.B. & Summerfelt, S.T. (2013). Comparing the effects of feeding a grain-or a fish meal-based diet on water quality waste production and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

-0302(92)77808-4. 11. Xing, C.H., Wen, X.H., Qian, Y., Wu, W.Z. & Klose, P.S. (2003). Fouling and Cleaning in an Ultrafi ltration Membrane Bioreactor for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Separation Science and Technology 38, 8, 1773-1789. DOI: 10.1081/SS-120019408. 12. Kuberkar, V.T. & Davis, R.H. (2001). Microfi ltration of protein-cell mixtures with crossfl ushing or backfl ushing. Journal of Membrane Science . 183, 1-14. DOI: 10.1016/S0376- 7388(00)00577-9. 13. Tomaszewska, M. & Białończyk, L. (2012). The separation of fermentation broth by ultrafi ltration using ceramic

salts from simulated fermentation broth containing succinate by nanofiltration. J. Membr. Sci . 246(1), 49–57. DOI: 10.1016/j. memsci.2004.08.014. 12. Mullet, M., Fievet, P., Reggiani, J.C. & Pagetti, J. (1997). Surface electrochemical properties of mixed oxide ceramic membranes: Zeta-potential and surface charge density. J. Membr. Sci . 123(2), 255–265. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-7388(96)00220-7.

ceramic membranes fouled with whey proteins: effects on cleaning procedures, J. Membr. Sci . 154, 239-250. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-7388(98)00294-4. 26. Bachin, P., Aimar, P. & Field, R.W. (2006). Critical and sustainable fluxes: Theory, experiments and applications, J. Membr. Sci ., 281, 42-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2006.04.014. 27. Nigam, M.O., Bansal, B. & Chen, X.D. (2008). Fouling and cleaning of whey protein concentrate fouled ultrafiltration membranes, Desalination , 218, 313-322. DOI: 10.1016/j. desal.2007.02.027. 28. Madaeni, S.S. & Mansourpanah, Y. (2004

Abstract

The effectiveness of nanofiltration with the use of ceramic membranes in the process of concentration and separation of fumaric acid or succinic acid from glycerol and citric acid from erythritol was evaluated. It was found that the retention of sodium salts of the acids investigated increased strongly with increasing the pH of the feed solution (depending on the degree of dissociation), while the retention degrees of di- and tricarboxylic acids, erythritol or glycerol were lower than 2%, irrespective of the initial concentration of the solution to be filtered. The results obtained showed that nanofiltration can be considered as one of the purification steps in the process of recovery of salts of organic acids from fermentation broth.

Abstract

In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P) were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

REFERENCES [1] PECIAR, P. - PECIAR, M. - FEKETE, R. 2016. Analysis of Mixing of Particulate Material by a Single Blade. In Solid State Phenomena . ISBN 978-3-03835-632-5, vol. 244, p. 40-47. [2] PECIAR, P. 2014. Pressure Distribution on the Particulate Material Homogenizer Blade . Bratislava: STU, 2014. 299 p. [3] PECIAR, P. - FEKETE, R. 2014. Calibration of the pressure sensor with a ceramic membrane. In Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara - International Journal of Engineering . ISSN 1584-2673, 2014, vol. 12, pp. 193-196. [4] CHANDRATILLEKE, G. R. - YU

References 1. Madsen, R. (1971). Ultrafiltration as a Method for Juice Purification. Zuckerindustrie, 12, 612-614. 2. Schreve l, G. (2001). Membrane filtration on beet raw juice and prelimed juice. Zuckerindustrie 5, 386. 3. Bubnik, Z. Hinkova, A. & Kadlec, P. (1998). Cross-flow Micro- and Ultrafiltration Applied on Ceramic Membranes in Impure Sugar Solutions. Czech J. Food Sci. 1, 29-32. DOI: S1383-5866(01)00121-6. 4. Hinkowa , A. Bubnik, Z. Kadlec, P. & Pridal, J. (2002). Potentials of separation membranes in the sugar industry. Separation and Purification