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Major Advances and Challenges in Heterogeneous Catalysis for Environmental Applications: A Review

References [1] Polshettiwar V, Varma RS. Green chemistry by nano-catalysis. Green Chem. 2010;12:743-754. DOI: 10.1039/b921171c. [2] Crutzen PJ, Wacławek S. Atmospheric chemistry and climate in the anthropocene. Chem Didact Ecol Metrol. 2014;19:9-28. DOI: 10.1515/cdem-2014-0001. [3] Anastas PT, Warner JC. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. DOI: 10.1159/000143289. [4] De Jong KP. Synthesis of Solid Catalysts. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009. DOI: 10

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Comparison of the methods of the phase transfer catalysis and hydroperoxide in the epoxidation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene

. Sharpless K. B., Verhoeven T. R.: Metal catalysed, highly selective oxygenation of olefins and acetylenes with tert -butyl hydroperoxide. Practical consideration and mechanisms, Aldrichim. Acta , 1979 , 12, 63 - 74. Lewandowski G.: Epoxidation of (Z,E,E)-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide by the method of phase transfer catalysis (PTC), Annals of the Polish Chemical Society, Year 2005 , v. II , 421. Wagner Ch. D., Smith R. D., Peters E. D.: Anal. Chem. , 1974 , 19, 976.

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On the mechanism of catalysis induced by mechano-activation of solid body

Abstract

The paper presents a new model of the mechanism of mechanocatalysis and tribocatalysis. The reason for the increase in heterogeneous catalysis effect after mechanical activation of a catalyst has not been fully understood yet. There is no known theory, which would explain the mechanism of the influence of mechanical energy introduced to catalyst particles on the rate of chemical reaction. All existing theories are based on Arrhenius equation and assume that catalysts increase reaction rate due to decreasing of activation energy E a. We hypothesize that both for standard and catalyzed heterogeneous reactions the same E a (real activation energy) is needed to trigger the reaction processes and the catalytic effect is the result of energy introduced to the reaction system, its accumulation by a catalyst and then emission of high flux of energy to the space near the catalyst particles. This energy emitted by molecules of reagents can reach a value equal to the value of E a at lower ambient temperature than it would result from Arrhenius equation. This hypothesis is based on α i model described in previous papers by Kajdas and Kulczycki as well as the results of tribochemical research described by Hong Liang et al., which demonstrate that the reaction rate is higher than that resulting from temperature.

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Synthesis of bioactive quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives via microwave activation tailored by phase-transfer catalysis

, Decomposition of formamide assisted by microwaves, a tool for synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles, Tetrahedron Lett. 49 (2008) 7033–7036; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2008.09.135 24. A. Loupy, A. Petit and D. Bogdal, Microwaves and Phase-Transfer Catalysis, in Microwaves in Organic Synthesis (Ed. A. Loupy), 2 nd ed., Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & KgaA, Weinheim 2006, pp. 278–280. 25. A. Loupy, A. Petit, J. Hamelin, F. Texier-Boullet, P. Jacquault and D. Mathé, New solvent-free organic synthesis using focused microwaves, Synthesis (1998) 1213

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Elementary steps in heterogeneous catalysis: The basis for environmental chemistry

Abstract

Catalysis is an alternative way for reaching an immediate formation of a product, because of a lower energy barrier (between the molecules and the catalysts). Heterogeneous catalysis comprises the acceleration of a chemical reaction through interaction of the molecules involved with the surface of a solid. It is a discipline, which involves all the different aspects of chemistry: inorganic and analytical chemistry in order to characterize the catalysts and the forms of these catalysts. The industrial chemistry puts all these things together to understand the solid chemical handling, chemical reaction and energy engineering and the heat and mass transfer in these catalytic processes. Very often there are more than one, but several products, then the role of the catalyst is not so much related to activity, but to selectivity. The underlying elementary steps can now be investigated down to the atomic scale as will be illustrated mainly with two examples: the oxidation of carbon monoxide (car exhaust catalyst) and the synthesis of ammonia (the basis for nitrogen fertilizer). There is a huge market for the catalysts themselves despite of their high costs. A large fraction is used for petroleum refineries, automotive and industrial cleaning processes. The catalytic processes is a wide field and there are still many problems concerning energy conservation and energy transformation, so there is much to do in the future.

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Epoxidation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene with H2O2 in the presence of tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40)

References Lewandowski, G. & Rytwińska, E. (2004). Epoxidation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene to 1,2-epoxy-5,9-cyclododecadiene. Przem. Chem., 83 (11), 559-563 (in Polish). Sasson, Y. & Neumann, R. (1997). Handbook of Phase Transfer Catalysis. Blackie Academic & Professional. Witczak, T., Grzesik, M., Witczak, M. & Skrzypek, J. (2007). Heteropolyacids as modern catalysts for esterification reactions , Przem. Chem., 86 (1), 43-47. (in Polish). Kabisch, G

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Efficiency of selected phase transfer catalysts for the synthesis of 1,2-epoxy-5,9-cyclododecadiene in the presence of H2O2/H3PW12O40 as catalytic system

heterocyclic compounds , Warszawa, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (in Polish). 7. Zhao, W., Ding, Y., Zhang, Zh., Ma, B., Qiu, W. (2011). [(C18H37)2(CH3)2N]7[PW11O39]: a temperaturecontrolled phase transfer catalyst for olefin epoxidation. Reac. Kinet. Mech. Cat. 102, 93-102. DOI: 10.1007/s11144-010-0242-7. 8. Mahha, Y., Salles, L., Piquemal, J.M., Briot, E., Atlamsani, A., Brégeault, J.M. (2007). Environmentally friendly epoxidation of olefins under phase-transfer catalysis conditions with hydrogen peroxide. J. Catal ., 249, 338-348. DOI: 10

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Aldol Condensation Reactions Effectively Catalysed by Lewis Acid

. Molbank. 2004, 1, M388. 4. Masaharu, S.; Yasuhiko, A.; Makoto, N. One pot synthesis of β, β- disubstituted α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8830-8835. 5. Ziua, W.; Guodong, Y.; Jing, Q.; Meng, G.; Liping, C.; Anxin, W. An efficient method for the selective iodination of α, β-unsaturated ketones. Synthesis. 2008, 22, 3675-3681. 6. Climent, M. J.; Corma, A.; Iborra, S.; Primo, J. Base catalysis for fine chemicals production: Claisen-Schmidt condensation on zeolites and hydrotalcites for the

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Study of Extraction Equilibria in the Reaction of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Activated Amino Acid Esters / Badanie Równowag Ekstrakcji W Reakcji Zasadowej Hydrolizy Aktywowanych Estrów Aminokwasów

References [1] Yadav GD. Insight into green phase transfer catalysis. Topics Catalysis. 2004;29:145-161. DOI: 10.1023/B:TOCA.0000029797.93561.cd. [2] Hashimoto T, Maruoka K. The Basic Principle of Phase-Transfer Catalysis and Some Mechanistic Aspects. In: Maruoka K, editor. Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2008. DOI: 10.1002/9783527622627. [3] Senthamizh SR, Nanthini R, Sukanyaa G. The basic principle of phase-transfer catalysis, some mechanistic aspects and

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