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The paper presents a new model of the mechanism of mechanocatalysis and tribocatalysis. The reason for the increase in heterogeneous catalysis effect after mechanical activation of a catalyst has not been fully understood yet. There is no known theory, which would explain the mechanism of the influence of mechanical energy introduced to catalyst particles on the rate of chemical reaction. All existing theories are based on Arrhenius equation and assume that catalysts increase reaction rate due to decreasing of activation energy E
a. We hypothesize that both for standard and catalyzed heterogeneous reactions the same E
a (real activation energy) is needed to trigger the reaction processes and the catalytic effect is the result of energy introduced to the reaction system, its accumulation by a catalyst and then emission of high flux of energy to the space near the catalyst particles. This energy emitted by molecules of reagents can reach a value equal to the value of E
a at lower ambient temperature than it would result from Arrhenius equation. This hypothesis is based on α
i model described in previous papers by Kajdas and Kulczycki as well as the results of tribochemical research described by Hong Liang et al., which demonstrate that the reaction rate is higher than that resulting from temperature.
Yaser A. El-Badry, Mahr A. El-Hashash and Khalil Al-Ali
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Gerhard Ertl, Maria Zielińska, Małgorzata Rajfur and Maria Wacławek
Catalysis is an alternative way for reaching an immediate formation of a product, because of a lower energy barrier (between the molecules and the catalysts). Heterogeneous catalysis comprises the acceleration of a chemical reaction through interaction of the molecules involved with the surface of a solid. It is a discipline, which involves all the different aspects of chemistry: inorganic and analytical chemistry in order to characterize the catalysts and the forms of these catalysts. The industrial chemistry puts all these things together to understand the solid chemical handling, chemical reaction and energy engineering and the heat and mass transfer in these catalytic processes. Very often there are more than one, but several products, then the role of the catalyst is not so much related to activity, but to selectivity. The underlying elementary steps can now be investigated down to the atomic scale as will be illustrated mainly with two examples: the oxidation of carbon monoxide (car exhaust catalyst) and the synthesis of ammonia (the basis for nitrogen fertilizer). There is a huge market for the catalysts themselves despite of their high costs. A large fraction is used for petroleum refineries, automotive and industrial cleaning processes. The catalytic processes is a wide field and there are still many problems concerning energy conservation and energy transformation, so there is much to do in the future.
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Victor S. Doroshkevich, Oksana V. Baranova, Aleksandr N. Shendrik, Aleksandr S. Doroshkevich, Olena S. Lygina and Svitlana B. Lyubchyk
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 Senthamizh SR, Nanthini R, Sukanyaa G. The basic principle of phase-transfer catalysis, some mechanistic aspects and