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Thymus fedtschenkoi Ronniger (Lamiaceae) is a permanent, that grows in some mountain rangelands of Iran, including Mazandaran province. The aerial parts of Thymus fedtschenkoi were collected during flowering stage in June 2012, from mountain rangelands of Mazandaran province, in north of Iran. Samples were collected from five altitudes (1300 m, 1600 m, 2000 m, 2400 m and 3000 m) in mountain region of Mazandaran province. The goal of current research was to assessment the effect of altitude on the chemical composition and function of essential oil in Thymus fedtschenkoi. The essential oil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results, the essential oil content is between 0.92-1.31%, at different altitudes. The highest content of essential oil (1.31%%) was extracted in the highest altitude (3000 m), while it was opposite (0.92%) in the lowest altitude (1300 m). The main essential oil compounds of Thymus fedtschenkoi samples were thymol (8.62%-36.86%), carvacrol (6.787%-68.39%), γ-terpinene (1.473T-6.461%), p-cymen (5.764%-16.204%) and linalool (0.465%-6.457 6.8%). According to the results, altitude has a positive effect on the percentage of essential oils and essential oil increases with increasing altitude. The altitude has a negative effect on the percentage of thymol and the content of thymol decreased with increasing altitude. The altitude has a positive effect on the percentage of carvacrol and the content of carvacrol increased with increasing altitude.
Thymus trauvetteri Klokov & Desj. (Lamiaceae) is a permanent species that grows in some mountain rangeland of Iran including Mazandaran province. The aerial parts of Thymus trauvetteri were collected during flowering stage in June 2014, from mountain rangelands of Mazandaran province,in North of Iran. Around samples collected from four altitudes (2100 m, 2400 m, 2700 m and 3000 m) in mountain region of Mazandaran province. The goal of current research was to assess the effect of altitude on the chemical composition and function of essential oil in Thymus trauvetteri. The essential oil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results, the essential oil content is between 1.01-1.51% at different altitudes. The highest essential oil (1.51%%) was extracted at an altitude of 2400 m, while it was opposite (1.01%) at an altitude of 3000 m. The main compounds essential oil of Thymus trauvetteri samples were identified: thymol (5.93%-49.75%), carvacrol (1.78%-54.02%), and p-cymen (6.98%-19.07%). According to the results, altitude was significantly (p≤ 0.05) effective on essential oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymen rates according to results of correlation analysis. The highest percentage of essential oil is at an altitude of 2400 m and the lowest is 3000 m above sea level. The highest percentage of thymol is in L3 (2700 m) and lowest is in L1 (2100 m). The highest percentage of carvacrol is in L3 (2700 m) and lowest is in L4 (3000 m). The highest percentage of p-cymen is in L1, L2, L3 (2100, 2400 and 2700 m, no significant difference) and lowest is in L4 (3000 m). Variations in essential oil rates and compositions may be due to on genetic, ecological or individual variability.
Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM) is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.
Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oils of thyme and myrtle. In addition to evaluating the insecticidal activity of carvacrol and eucalyptol against the different life stages of potato tuber moth using a fumigation bioassays.
Methods: Thyme and myrtle oils were extracted from wild Thymus syriacus Boiss. and wild Myrtus communis L. by hydrodistillation. Fumigation experiments were conducted on potato tuber moth of different stages of development (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults), using standard methods. The potato tuber moth was treated for different periods using different concentrations of the essential oils. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the mortality percentages data to estimate the significance of differences between treatments at p<0.05. Probit analysis was used to estimate the LC50, LC90 and LT50.
Results: Adult stage was the most sensitive to essential oils vapours with LC50 value of 0.5 μl/l air. Whereas, pupal stages were the most tolerant. The essential oil of thyme possessed the strongest fumigant toxicity against eggs with a LC50 value of 6.1 μl/l air. The two monoterpens showed varied fumigant toxicity against adult stage. Carvacrol achieved 100% mortality at 0.125 μl/l air after 6 h, and 0.025 μl/l air after 48h exposure with LT50 period of 0.5 h.
Conclusion: The present work demonstrated that T. syriacus essential oil is a promising natural fumigant against the different developmental stages of PTM.