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Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), which are used on vessels and can replace paper charts, allow to obtain and display on electronic charts information from basic and additional data sources. For the certified use of ECDIS instead of paper charts, it is necessary to ensure constant updating of Electronic Navigation Chart (ENC) data provided to vessels for use. The known visual and satellite observation systems intended for cartographic information update are costly, have low accuracy and do not allow to quickly update navigational charts in real-time mode. The stand-alone use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) will make it possible not only to substantially reduce costs and increase the accuracy of monitoring, but also to provide information in real-time mode.


Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement). However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance) or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance). Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map) which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial relations between individual elements and their groups independent of consciousness.

The process of map perception depends on various factors, including the nature, scale and map content, the degree of its complexity and compliance of the map language with cartographic principles. Important factors also include cartographic competencies of the recipient of a map conditioned by age, education and the task type. It is related to types of information about geographical space: semantic – concerning spatial references of particular objects and structural – connected to relations between elements of a map. Such relations may be determined at the regional or global level, they may concern qualitative or quantitative features as well as changes in time.

Nowadays, an important factor impacting the nature and consequences of map perception is the situation in which the process occurs. Traditionally, static and unchanging maps are used under other conditions than computer maps and navigation systems, making it possible to freely zoom in and zoom out the image and its spatial scope as well as to quickly go from one image to another.

Today, when the predominant way of map use is their perception on the screens of navigation systems, processes of map perception and factors conditioning it are also significant to understand the process. In the analysis of map perception, also tasks which are implemented using the map and the nature of information obtained by the map user must be taken into account.


The article contains methods for conducting and results of research on the optimization of the navigation charts scale. The methodology is based on the principles of information theory. The basis for the calculation were the data read from the Polish charts. Certain been recommended optimal scales of the navigation charts.

, The perception of colour in cartography. In: Proceedings of Cartogr. Symposium, Edinbourgh. Keates J.S., 1982, Understanding maps. London and New York: Longman Group Ltd., 139 pp. Kimerling A.J., 1975, A cartographic study of equal value gray scales for use with screened gray areas. “The American Cartographer” Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 119-127. Kolačny A., 1969, Cartographic information - a fundamental concept and term in modern cartography. “The Cartogr. Journal” Vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 47-49. Kolačny A., 1971, Informacja kartograficzna - podstawowe pojęcie i termin w


The article presents the use of historical Polish post-war topographic maps and their usefulness in the detection and assessment of environmental changes caused by 20th century urbanisation. The case study area is the Polish city of Lublin. Two main research questions are defined and answered. The first is what kinds of maps can be used to trace environmental changes as well as to find the present-day remains of past environments and what is the reliability of these maps? Several series of topographic maps are used here together with aerial photography. The second research question is what changes can be found by comparing spatial sources and what features can be found today with the help of early maps. The main features investigated in this section are linear (road networks) and areal (orchards) supplemented with point features of various kinds (trees, wells, shrines). The quality of cartographic information is assessed and remnants of the past environment are discovered.


Maps, depicting the warfare, are elaborated according to the rules developed over the years. Although, they are not free of errors. The authors draw our attention to the diversity of methods related to the cartographic presentations, which are shown on the historical maps. This is quite understandable, because every such a map introduces an individual point of view on the historical facts. It is noted, that the most commonly used methods are the qualitative ones, among which, for instance, first of all, the method of signature is frequently used.

In the case of historical maps displaying an event in the specific sequence of times, a loss of cartographic information always occur. This is connected both with the complexity of historical facts and with the difficulty in reading a map, which should present the dynamics of this phenomenon in a complete way. The dynamic variables, such as the time of exposure, duration, frequency, order, degree of change and synchronisation, should be taken into account on the maps of warfare.

The use of information technology makes it possible to develop not only the simple maps presenting the course of warfare in the statistic and schematic ways, but also the maps, which are rich in various types of multimedia information.

Multimedia cartographic presentations can be enriched with the photos and panoramas showing the direct effects of warfare and the pseudo three-dimensional visualization showing the battle from a selected direction. The proprietary software let to combine the sequence of photos into a presentation, allowing to take a virtual tour of the areas directly affected by the hostilities. Network services, such as WMS, WFS, WCS, provide the integrated data from the different sources for us. So, we can connect the archival maps with the contemporary satellite images, defining, thus, the location of a specific place in the terrain.

The authors do not cover the issue of complexity connected with the elaboration of maps presenting the combat operations. The most important problems, which have not been discussed in this article, are the following ones: lack of base maps from the period to which the presented issues related, deliberate distortion of map contents, historical and cartographic imprecisions presented on the maps, appropriate selection of the methods of cartographic presentation related to the phenomena, which are presented on the maps.

pictures into numerical form cooperating with the computer, and the electronic equipment for presenting the results of the processing of the numerical data in the form of pictures are organized to form an automatized cartographic system (ACS). The sys- tem is meant to facilitate the activities of the preparations and edition of maps and is a part of the general cartographic information system (CIS) (Grygorenko 1972a). The functioning of the cartographic automatic system is impossible without the correct work of another link in the cartographic informa- tion system

Visualization of Spatial Data . London: Addison Wesley Longman. Koláčný A., 1969, Cartographic information: A fundamental concept and term in modern cartography . “The Cartographic Journal” Vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 47–49. Makowski A., 2001, Trójdzielna jedność mapy na tle idei systemu informacji przestrzennej . „Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny” T. 33, nr 1, pp. 38–42. Makowski A., 2005a, Ontogeneza mapy . In: System informacji topograficznej kraju . Ed. A. Makowski. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, pp. 19–41. Makowski A., 2005b, Pojęcie mapy . In: System

. Lehrbuch der Allgemeinen Geographie, Bd. 10. Kolačny A., 1969, Cartographic information – a fundamental concept and term in modern cartography. Cartogr. J. vol. 6, no. 1, p. 47–49. Lutyj A. A., 1981, Jazyk karty, sushchnost’, sistiema, funkcii , Moskva. MacEachren A. M., 1994, Visualization in modern cartography: setting the agenda. [in:] D.R.F. Taylor and A. M. MacEachen (ed.) Visualisation in modern cartography London, Pergamon Press. MacEachren A. M., 1998, Wizualizacja – kartografia XXI wieku [Visualization – cartography in the XX th century; in Polish

transferred than in those in which they emerged (Beveridge 1961). 4. The quantity of cartographic information (coming from the map) depends on preparation of the map users and on the ways of map reading. The simplest mode of reading is the visual perception, although the infor- mation thus acquired may be insufficient both as regards its scope and precision. The use of procedures discussed under point 3 enables extension and definition of knowledge of the phenomena under investigation. This procedure may be illustrated by any measurements made on maps as well as