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/software-developments-for-computer-assisted-generalization.pdf Meynen E., 1958/59, Einheit von Inhalt und Form der thematischen Karte . „Geographisches Taschenbuch” 1958/59, pp. 534–540. Miller O.M., Voskuil R.J., 1964, Tematic-map generalization . “The Geographical Review” Vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 13–19. Monmonier M., 1982, Computer-assisted cartography: Principles and prospects . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Morrison J.L., 1974, A theoretic framework for cartographic generalization with emphasis on the process of symbolization . “International Yearbook of Cartography” Vol. 14, pp. 115–127. Müller M., 1937, O

operators for maintaining legible map designs at multiple scales . “Cartographic Perspective” Vol. 68, pp. 29–64. Shea K.S., McMaster R.B., 1989, Cartographic generalization in a digital environment: When and how to generalize . In: Proceedings of the Auto-Carto, Baltimore, MD, USA , Vol. 9, pp. 56–67. Słowiński R., Greco S., Matarazzo B., 2014, Rough-set-based decision support . In: Search Methodologies . Boston MA, pp. 557–609. Zadeh L. A., 1965, Fuzzy sets. “Information and Control” Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 338–353. Zhang J., 2001, Using rough set represent the

Abstract

In the article, the concept of landscape maps by Franciszek Uhorczak (1902–1981), Professor of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, was discussed. The maps constitute a cartographic illustration of volume III, IV and V of “Universal Geography” edited by Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (the National Scientific Publishing House) (Warsaw 1965–1967) – the first Polish small-scale landscape maps of the world. From the perspective of the 50s, an attempt was undertaken to assess the editorial assumptions, landscape typology and selection of cartographic means used by the author, paying special attention to the selection of colours representing landscapes. Also, issues raising controversies related to the degree of generalization of particular elements of the content, typology of landscapes as well as map details were indicated. The performed analysis leads to the conclusion that landscape maps by Professor F. Uhorczak constituted one of the most significant achievements of Polish thematic cartography of the 20th century, and they are an unequaled model also for the contemporary cartographers.

The tools of automated generalization and building generalization in an ArcGIS environment

Cartographic generalization plays an important role in the creation of maps. The implementation of generalization rules in the form of generalization tools in a GIS environment is an important part of digital cartography today. The article describes possibilities for the use of vector dataset generalization tools in an ArcGIS 9.2 environment. The main goal of the paper is to design and verify a generalization model of buildings for cartographic output on a scale of 1 : 10 000 on the basis of BD GIS. The limit values were defined, and two approaches to building generalization on a scale of 1 : 10, 000 were defined and tested (Generalization A, Generalization B).

Abstract

The author first discusses the various ways of classifying cartographic generalization techniques, and then analyzes the course of the generalization process during the creation of a 1:50 000 topographic map on the basis of a 1:10 000 map. Using this analysis as a foundation, the author identifies, discusses and illustrates with examples the five types of cartographic generalization.

-geographical studies). In: Dawne mapy topograficzne w badaniach geograficzno-historycznych (Early topographical maps in geographical-historical studies). Ed. A. Czerny. Lublin: Wydawnictwo UMCS, pp. 85–102. Cebrykow P., 2017, Cartographic generalization yesterday and today . “Polish Cartographical Review” Vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 5–15. Denecke D., 1979, Methodische Untersuchungen zur historisch-geographischen Wegeforschung im Raum zwischen Solling und Harz. Ein Beitrag zur Rekonstruktion der mittelaalterlichen Kulturlandschaft . Göttingen. Gregory, Ian; Ell, Paul S., 2007

References 1. Chrobak T., Keller S., Kozioł K., Szostak M., Żukowska M., Basics of digital cartographic generalization, Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, Kraków, 2007 (in polish) 2. IHO, S-52 Standard, ed. 6.1, 2014 3. IALA, Operational and Technical Performance of VTS systems V-128, Ed. 4, 2015 4. Hejmanowska B., Kamiński W., Przyborski M., Pyrchla J., (2015), Modern remote sensing and the challenges facing education systems 2in terms of its teaching, 7th International Confrence on Education and New Learning Technologies EDULEARN 15 Barcelona, Spain

. Car- tographic methodology and applied cartography, in which he creatively developed the ideas of the Wrocław school of cartography, were also important areas of his activity. In 1968 he got a Ph.D. degree from his Alma Mater for the thesis titled Character of distortion of selected elements of map contents resulting from the process of cartographic generalization (Wro- cław 1971). He continued this topic in his fol- lowing book Some problems of generalization of hypsometry (Wrocław 1972) and in numerous articles, the most important of which include: Pre

cartographic picture of the terrain on the map, it ref lects most ful ly typical features of natural landscape and character of socioeconomic landscape. This unique property of contents of a geographical map is obtained due to the process of cartographic generalization, which consists of the visual investigation and standardization of external features of natural landscape as is the case of the compilation of the basic map design by topographical or photogrammetrical sur- veying. This may also be accomplished by conceptual transformation of contents of other maps and