This paper analyzes the syntactic properties of the “ba-construction” or “disposal form” in Mandarin Chinese under new theoretical frameworks. By introducing the event-decomposition method proposed by Ramchand (2008), it argues that the ba-construction conveys the causativity and the resultativity of the event at the same time, which can be shown from the syntactic representation. Then, this paper tests the position of ba, assuming that it is a functional head, and the result of the test indicates that ba is a voice head in the hierarchy of functional projections proposed by Cinque (1999, 2006). The final word order of a ba-construction can be derived by the argument movement of the direct object and by a head movement of ba or by the merge of ba at the head position of the higher functional head of a split VoiceP.
The paper presents the changes that have occurred in the morphometry of Lakes Gopło and Ostrowskie, which are located
in central Poland. The analysis covered the period characterised by increased human interference into the water cycle, which has
been taking place continually since the mid-eighteenth century. On the basis of available cartographic materials (aerial photographs,
topographic maps, bathymetric charts of the lakes) and the authors’ own field measurements digital terrain models were developed
for the immediate environment of the surveyed lakes. These models, in turn, were used for measuring basic parameters characterising
the external dimensions of the lakes (surface area, length and maximum width, shoreline length) and their underwater relief (volume,
maximum and average depth). In addition, the selected indicators of the shape and form of the lake basins were determined. The results
showed a drastic reduction of water resources of the two lakes. The basin of Lake Gopło covers only the deepest parts of the former
reservoir, accounting for only 23.3% of the lake before 1772, and 32.5% of its former volume. In the case of Lake Ostrowskie the surface
area and volume decreased, respectively, by 23.5% (74.9 ha) and 21.3% (6 695 000 m3). Such large changes in surface area and volume of
both lakes have contributed to significant changes in other morphometric parameters and indicators. In particular, significant changes
were observed in relation to such morphometric characteristics as length and maximum width, as well as average and maximum depth.
The aim of the study was to determine actions towards enrichment of natural aspects of the water reservoir in Zaklików, with consideration of nature protection and social needs. For this purpose, physical and chemical parameters of the reservoir, floristic and physiognomic characteristics of the area, cartographic analysis of land use, natural and touristic valorisation, and the concept of tourism development of the area were considered. The reservoir, based on the ESMI index, rated as moderate ecological status. The highest natural and tourist values, as well as the highest intensity of conflict between them, were located in the north-eastern and central part of the study area. Based on all analyzes, a concept of development of the study area was created, consistent with the local development plan.
The Wieprz-Krzna Canal, built in 1961, is one of the longest in Poland (142 km). Although the drainage construction was intended to revitalize the region of wetlands and peat-bogs of the West Polesie, it caused large hydrological changes. Research on catchments of three natural lakes and three retention reservoirs involved cartographic analysis using photointerpretation, as well as the Braun-Blanquet method. In the studied area, between 1939 and 2016 the length of rivers and ditches increased more than three times. Macrophytes covered about 20-27% of the natural lakes water surface, whereas in retention reservoirs the coverage was 12-15.5%. Also a greater diversity of macrophytes occurred in natural lakes. In retention reservoirs it was restricted to only emerged macrophytes.
The scientific heritage of M. R. G. Conzen, who is considered one of the most outstanding historical geographers and urban morphologists in the world, has made a huge impact on the contemporary urban historic morphology. Nowadays it would be very hard to imagine this scientific discipline without his achievements. He created a new point of view on the city, first within the Anglo-Saxon, and afterwards within European and world geography. Morphogenetic methods, the conceptualisation of historic development, terminological precision as well as cartographic analysis that were typical of his approach, more and more often were considered essential for the development and the role of research on historic urban landscape. This resulted in the increasing interest in morphological studies on an international scale. In Poland, M. R. G. Conzen’s opinions have become recognizable since 1960, finding permanent place in urban historic morphology and providing stimuli for its significant development in the following decades.
Scientists, experts, and politicians have differing views on polarisation and levelling in the development of regions. Many researchers consider polarisation to be an objective process that benefits the country and the region because labour productivity is higher in larger centres. As for social differences, many states (and the European Union as an organisation) redistribute part of their revenue from more prosperous regions to poorer ones using regional budget policies. The article provides useful data on the regional specificity of polarisation and levelling in Russia at macro-, meso-, and microregional levels based on statistical, economic and cartographic analysis. The article shows that in Russia the polarisation of the economy and population distribution strongly prevails over the levelling of regional differences.
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