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Illicit drugs and their impact on cardiovascular pathology

-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor, and fibrinogen . American Journal of Cardiology, 89 (9):1133-1135. 8. SCHWARTZ BG, REZKALLA S, KLONER RA. Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine . Circulation 2010, 122 (24):2558-2569. 9. GUO J, GANG H, ZHANG S. Molecular Determinants of Cocaine Block of Human Ether-á-go-go-Related Gene Potassium Channels . Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2006, 317 (2):865-874. 10. KARCH SB. The pathology of drug abuse . CRC Press Boca Raton; 1996. 11. QURESHI AI, SURI MFK, GUTERMAN LR, HOPKINS LN. Cocaine

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Monotherapy of experimental metabolic syndrome: II. Study of cardiovascular effects

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome belongs to the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in cardiovascular system induced by high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHF) in HTG rats and their influence by a pyridoindole antioxidant – SMe1EC2 (S). The effects of S were compared with those of atorvastatin (A). Male HTG rats were fed HCHF (1% cholesterol + 7.5% lard) for 4 weeks. S and A were administered p.o., 50 mg/kg b.w. Following experimental groups were used: Wistar rats (W), hypertriglyceridemic rats (HTG), HTG rats fed HCHF (CHOL), HTG+S (S-HTG), CHOL+S (S-CHOL), and CHOL+A (A-CHOL). Values of blood pressure (BP) and selected ECG parameters were monitored in conscious animals, functions of the isolated heart and aorta were analyzed ex vivo. At the end of the experiment, systolic (sBP) and diastolic (dBP) blood pressure was increased in HTG and CHOL. S and A decreased BP in all treated groups. Accordingly with BP changes, the aortic endothelial function of CHOL was damaged. Both S and A administration ameliorated the endothelium-dependent relaxation to values of W. PQ and QTc intervals were prolonged in CHOL, while the treatment with S or A improved ECG findings. Prodysrhythmogenic threshold was decreased significantly in CHOL and both treatments returned it to the control values. In conclusion, HCHF increased BP, impaired endothelial relaxation of the aorta and potentiated susceptibility of myocardium to dysrhythmias. The effect of S on the changes induced by HCHF diet was more pronounced than that of A.

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Immediate cardiovascular effects of pranava relaxation in patients with hypertension and diabetes

. Basavaraddi (2012) Immediate cardiovascular effects of pranava pranayama in hypertensive patients. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. , (in press) Bhavanani A. B., Madanmohan, S. Zeena (2011) Immediate effect of sukha pranayama on cardiovascular variables in patients of hypertension. Int. J. Yoga Ther. , 21:73-76. Frankel B. L., D. J. Patel, D. Horwitz, W. T. Friedewald, K. R. Gaarder (1978) Treatment of hypertension with biofeedback and relaxation techniques. Psychosom. Med. , 40

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Cardiovascular effects of high-fructose intake in rats with nitric oxide deficiency

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) system damage in the deleterious effects of high-fructose intake in rats. Fructose was administered as 10% solution in drinking water to twelve-week-old male Wistar rats for the period of 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. After sacrificing the rats at the end of the treatment, relative weights of heart and liver and biochemical parameters in blood plasma were determined. Reactivity of isolated conduit arteries was measured using a force-displacement transducer for recording isometric tension. Fructose drinking rats had increased blood pressure and impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the thoracic aorta in comparison with control rats drinking just tap water. Relative liver weight and plasma concentrations of glucose and triglycerides were also elevated after fructose administration. In a further group of Wistar rats, inhibition of NO production by administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day) was performed throughout fructose intake. L-NAME treatment itself induces increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight as well as impairment in arterial relaxation and contractility. However, in these rats, fructose administration did not cause further elevation of blood pressure and other abnormalities observed in rats receiving fructose without L-NAME. Our results showed that in the state of NO deficiency (induced by L-NAME administration) fructose does not induce cardiovascular and metabolic alterations which develop in rats with a functional NO system. This indicates that impairment of the NO system may participate in many of the adverse effects induced by high-fructose intake.

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Cardiovascular Risk in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Summary

Subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) is a relatively common thyroid dysfunction, characterized by the increase of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the presence of normal free thyroxine values. Thyroid hormones are known for the cardiovascular effects, and the consequences of HSC on the cardiovascular system have become the focus of many studies lately. There are clear indications of the relationship between HSC and cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis; also, HSC is associated with metabolic syndrome, BMI increase and cardiac insufficiency. Therefore, many clinical trials investigate the benefits and risks of HSC treatment with L-thyroxine.

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Hydroxychloroquine: Looking into the Future

Abstract

Hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial agent has also been found to possess antidiabetic action. Onset of type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease is now considered to be the outcome of systemic inflammation. Many clinical trials are targeting systemic inflammation to reduce cardiovascular risk. Anti-inflammatory drugs with cardiovascular effects may be valuable therapeutic intervention to reduce massive cardiovascular risk in T2DM. In this review, antidiabetic action and potential cardioprotective role of hydroxychloroquine has been discussed. By virtue of its antidiabetic, lipid lowering, anti-platelet, anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties, hydroxychloroquine can be a key therapeutic alternative to manage patients with T2DM.

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Antioxidant Properties of Resveratrol and its Protective Effects in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Summary

Resveratrol is a natural organic compound, polyphenol, produced naturally by some plants in response to several harmful factors such as attack by pathogens, UV radiation, or increased oxidative stress. Many experiments suggest that it triggers mechanisms that counteract aging-related effects and plays a role in insulin resistance as well. It also possesses beneficial properties such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and cardiovascular effects. It is supposed to exhibit an interesting activity in neuroprotection - mainly through activation of sirtuins and counteraction in forming peptide aggregates. Still research is needed to evaluate exactly how resveratrol protects neurons, and to develop new, potential, therapeutic drugs

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Effects of Intrathecal Administration of Ketamine HCl in Young Calves: A Clinical Trial

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the clinical, biochemical, and cardiovascular effects of intrathecal (IT) administration of ketamine HCl in calves. The study was performed on seven Simmental and three Montofon calves, 1.70 ± 1.16 weeks old, weighing approximately 37 kg, undergoing surgical procedures including femur fracture repair (one case), atresia anus (five cases), prolapsed rectum (one case), suturing on rear limbs (two cases), and urethrostomy (one case). After administering IT ketamine HCl at a dose of 3 mg/kg to all calves, the level and depth of the anaesthesia was checked with a pin-prick test. Each animal was monitored by recording heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rates, and rectal temperature. Furthermore, certain biochemical parameters, blood gases, oxygen-total haemoglobin, and electrolyte levels were measured. All data were statistically evaluated using Minitab 16 software. Anaesthesia occurred in all calves at an average of 5.00 ± 1.41 min (range: 3-7) and continued for an average of 61.4 ± 40 min (range: 55-70). Sufficient anaesthesia was achieved in all animals for the required operations, and no complications occurred with regard to clinical and haemodynamic measurements. We concluded that in calves, which are not deemed suitable for administration of local anaesthetic via IT due to certain side effects, sufficient anaesthesia can be provided with ketamine by the same method for operations performed in the perineal area and hind extremities, and that this could be a good alternative for anaesthesia under field conditions.

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Cardiorespiratory and Hemodynamic Effects of Medetomidine or Xylazine with Atropine and Diazepam Premedication for Total Intravenous Anesthesia Induced and Maintained with Propofol/Fentanyl in Dogs Undergoing Surgery

medetomidine-butorphanol in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004, 65:931-937. 13. Raekallio MR, Räihä MP, Alanen MH, Sarén NM, Tuovio TA: Effects of medetomidine, L-methadone, and their combination on arterial blood gases in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009, 36:158-61. 14. Yamashita K, Tsubakishita S, Futaok S, Ueda I, Hamaguchi H, Seno T, Katoh S, Izumisawa Y, Kotani T, Muir WW: Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. J Vet Med Sci 2000, 62:1025-32. 15. Kürüm B, Pekcan Z, Kalender H, Kumandaş A, Can Mutan O

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Mechanisms of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE)- induced vasorelaxation in the rat aorta

, Herunsalee A, Niumsakul S, Charuchongkolwongse S, Chansuvanich N. Kaempferia parviflora ethanolic extract promoted nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 110:559-62. 7. Chaturapanich G, Chaiyakul S, Verawatnapakul V, Pholpramool C. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats. Reproduction. 2008; 136: 515-22. 8. Saha DC, Saha AC, Malik G, Astiz ME, Rackow EC. Comparison of cardiovascular effects of tiletaminezolazepam

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