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References 1. Guides and Consensus for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases, China: People’s Medical Publishing House, ISBN978- 7 -117-12128 - 6 /R. 12129. 2013; p. 198-213. 2. Fang WG, Huang XM, Wang Y, Zhu WG, Bie ZX, Chen JL, et al. A cross-sectional study of hyperuricemia in state-employees in Beijing: Prevalence and risk factors. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2006;86:1764-8. 3. Zhang XS, Yu WG, Yu LX, Zhang LY, Yu Y. The epidemiology investigation of hyperuricemia and gout in Shandong province Haiyang city community’s resident. Chin J Gen Pract 2006

ABBREVIATIONS ACSM - American College of Sports Medicine AHA - American Heart Association BP - blood pressure CRP - C-reactive protein CVD - cardiovascular diseases CHD - coronary heart disease eNOS - endothelial nitric oxide synthase ET-1 - endothelin-1 HbA1c - glycated haemoglobin HDL-C - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol IL-6 - interleukin-6 LDL-C - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol NO - nitric oxide PA - physical activity PF - physical fitness ROS - reactive oxygen species TNF - tumour necrosis factor T2D - type 2 diabetes WHO - World Health Organization

References Ostry AS, Spiegel JM. Labor markets and employment insecurity: Impacts of globalization on the healthcare workforce. Int J Occup Environ Health 2004;10:368-74. Landsbergis PA. The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: A commentary. J Occup Environ Med 2003;11:61-71. Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis PA, Baker D. Why the workplace and cardiovascular disease? Occup Med 2000;15:1-16. Schnall PL, Dobson M, Rosskam E, editors. Unhealthy work: Causes, consequences and cures. Amityville, NY: Baywood Press; 2009

, Khan S. Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly subjects with dyspnoea and/or reduced exercise tolerance – A hospital based cross sectional study. Egypt J Chest Dis Tuberculosis 2015: 64: 567–71. 8. Directorate General of Health Services, India. National programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke (NPCDCS). Available from: (Accessed on June 12, 2015). 9. Jones RC, Donaldson GC, Chavannes NH, Kida K, Dickson-Spillmann M, Harding S, et al

D, et al. Amlodipine and atorvastatin improved hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B/osteoprotegerin system in spontaneous hypertension rats. Exp Biol Med. 2016;241:1237-1249. doi: 10.1177/1535370216630180. 29. Bendaya I, Riahi A, Kharat M, et al. STAT1 and STAT6 Act as Antagonistic Regulators of PPAR γ in Diabetic Patients with and without Cardiovascular Diseases. Clin Lab. 2018;64:287-294. doi: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.171013. 30. Fehlmann T, Meese E

REFERENCES 1. Spanos K, Matsagkas M, Giannoukas A. Full Blood Count and Peripheral Arterial Disease Severity and Prognosis. Curr Vasc Pharmacol . 2017;15:94-95. 2. Paquissi FC. The role of inflammation in cardiovascular diseases: the predictive value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a marker in peripheral arterial disease. Ther Clin Risk Manag . 2016;12:851-860. 3. Duman E, Kulaksızoglu S, Çifçi E, Ozulku M. Is there a Real Correlation between Red Cell Distribution Width and Peripheral Arterial Disease? J Med Biochem . 2017;36:309-313. 4. Shere A, Eletta O


The objective of this study was to analyze the association between some cardiovascular diseases and acute ischemic stroke. A total of 258 acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age 70.59±7.22 years) were examined. The presence of eight cardiovascular diseases and pathological conditions was analyzed: arterial hypertension, hypertensive heart, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, effort angina pectoris, coronary atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Data were statistically processed by variation and correlation analysis. Most male and female patients presented with four accompanying cardiovascular diseases (27 or 20.93% and 31 or 24.03% of the cases, respectively). There were two groups of four variables each - with a relatively strong and a moderate, as well as with a weak correlation (r<0.4), to the presence of acute ischemic stroke in the corresponding patients. Ischemic heart disease was strongly associated with effort angina pectoris (r=0.667) and to a lesser extent - with coronary atherosclerosis (r=0.470), whereas myocardial infarction was associated with coronary atherosclerosis (r=0.604) and ischemic heart disease (r=0.378), respectively. Arterial hypertension was moderately related to hypertensive heart (r=0.300). In conclusion, there were relatively close associations between acute ischemic stroke and these heart diseases. These patients should strictly and regularly be followed up by general practitioners.

-risk patients for cardiovascular disease (CVD) typically have risk factors, which include so called “risk diseases”, such as arterial hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, in combination with a poor lifestyle. Medical intervention is directed toward the treatment of risk diseases and the improvement of lifestyle. HRQoL in patients with isolated risk diseases, such as obesity, also profit from interventions directed toward the improvement of lifestyle ( 11 ). Even arterial hypertension, a silent disease, showed an influence on the quality of life in some studies ( 12 ). In our

[dissertation]. Pleven: Medical University of Pleven; 2015. p. 149. 10. Miravitlles M, Price D, Rabe K, et al. Comorbidities of patients in tiotropium clinical trials: comparison with observational studies of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2015;10:549-64. 11. Mannino DM, Thorn D, Swensen A, et al. Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD. Eur Respir J 2008;32:962-9. 12. McAllister DA, Maclay JD, Mills NL, et al. Arterial stiffness is independently associated with emphysema

REFERENCES 1. Nichols M, Townsend N, Scarborough P, et al. Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2950-9. 2. Wojtyniak B, Goryński P. Sytuacja zdrowotna ludności Polski i jej uwarunkowania – synteza. Warszawa: Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Public-znego – Państwowy Zakład Higieny; 2018. 3. Strzelecki Z, Szymborski J. Zachorowalność i umieralność na choroby układu krążenia a sytuacja demograficzna Polski. Warszawa: Rządowa Rada Ludnościowa; 2015. 4. Global Health Observatory (GHO). (accessed