Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (±3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
Anca Pantea-Stoian, Sabina Chilianu, Florentina Stefanca, Viviana Elian and Cristian Serafinceanu
Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age). The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI) calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV). Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%). Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate) registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92) and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01). Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight), 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight) and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity). Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.
Tramadol is classified as a pharmacist-only (restricted) medicine by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand (Thai FDA). Because of concern about its abuse, in September 2013 the Thai FDA announced a policy to control the distribution of tramadol in community pharmacies.
To identify tramadol dispensing practices by community pharmacists in Bangkok, their recognition of tramadol abuse and the Thai FDA control policy announcement; and opinions about the tramadol control policy.
This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies located in Bangkok. Pharmacists on duty were interviewed from September 2015 to April 2016.
Data from 305 pharmacists working in 305 pharmacies revealed that tramadol, both single (tramadol alone) and combination (tramadol plus acetaminophen) formulations, was available in 185 pharmacies (60.7%). Most pharmacists dispensed tramadol to supply regular medicine along with previous prescriptions (74%). Among 305 pharmacists, 304 (99.7%) recognized tramadol abuse in combination with cold–cough remedies and carbonated beverages can create euphoria. Most (97.7%) knew about the announcement of the tramadol control policy, and most (82.6%) thought that the policy was practical. Approximately 43% of pharmacists agreed that the policy was effective in reducing the tramadol abuse problem, whereas 36.7% disagreed. Moreover, 60.3% disagreed with rescheduling tramadol as a prescription-only medicine. In their opinion, tramadol should still be available in pharmacies, to be dispensed by community pharmacists to patients with medical necessity.
Further studies nationwide in Thailand are likely to be useful to represent and compare information in different parts of the country.
Enea Bitri, Lucian Petcu, Gabriela Mocanu and Doina Paula Balaban
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