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Risk Factors for Laryngeal Cancer in Montenegro

Risk Factors for Laryngeal Cancer in Montenegro

Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.

A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (±3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.

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The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

Abstract

Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age). The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI) calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV). Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%). Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate) registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92) and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01). Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight), 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight) and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity). Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

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Recognition of tramadol abuse, dispensing practices, and opinions about its control policy among community pharmacists in Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

Background

Tramadol is classified as a pharmacist-only (restricted) medicine by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand (Thai FDA). Because of concern about its abuse, in September 2013 the Thai FDA announced a policy to control the distribution of tramadol in community pharmacies.

Objectives

To identify tramadol dispensing practices by community pharmacists in Bangkok, their recognition of tramadol abuse and the Thai FDA control policy announcement; and opinions about the tramadol control policy.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies located in Bangkok. Pharmacists on duty were interviewed from September 2015 to April 2016.

Results

Data from 305 pharmacists working in 305 pharmacies revealed that tramadol, both single (tramadol alone) and combination (tramadol plus acetaminophen) formulations, was available in 185 pharmacies (60.7%). Most pharmacists dispensed tramadol to supply regular medicine along with previous prescriptions (74%). Among 305 pharmacists, 304 (99.7%) recognized tramadol abuse in combination with cold–cough remedies and carbonated beverages can create euphoria. Most (97.7%) knew about the announcement of the tramadol control policy, and most (82.6%) thought that the policy was practical. Approximately 43% of pharmacists agreed that the policy was effective in reducing the tramadol abuse problem, whereas 36.7% disagreed. Moreover, 60.3% disagreed with rescheduling tramadol as a prescription-only medicine. In their opinion, tramadol should still be available in pharmacies, to be dispensed by community pharmacists to patients with medical necessity.

Conclusions

Further studies nationwide in Thailand are likely to be useful to represent and compare information in different parts of the country.

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In Vitro Assessment of Erosive Effects of Some Common Soft Drinks on Dental Hard Tissues

References 1. Lussi A (ed): Dental Erosion. Monogr Oral Sci. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 20, pp: 9-16. 2. Wang YL, Chang CC, Chi CW, Chang HH, Chiang YC, Chuang YC, et al. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: An in vitro study. J Formos Med Assoc, 2014;113:850-856. 3. Lussi A, Schaffner M, Hotz P, Suter P. Dental erosion in a population of Swiss adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1991;19:286-290. 4. Kitchens M, Owens BM. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro

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The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Innovative Work Behavior for Sports Services in Tourism Enterprises

on marketing innovation: A research on carbonated beverage industry. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 12(3), 27-50. Utterback, J.M. (1994). Mastering the dynamics of innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Walumbwa, F.O., Cropanzano, R., & Hartnell, C.A. (2009). Organizational justice, voluntary learning behavior, and job performance: A test of the mediating effects of identification and leader-member exchange. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(8), 1103-1126. DOI: 10.1002/job.611

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Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables - Their Occurrence, Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition

., Powles J. W. 1997. Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 26: 1-13. [DOI: 10.1093/ije/26.1.1] Olsson M. E., Gustavsson K. E., Andersson S., Nilsson A., Duan R. D. 2004. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 7264-7271. [DOI: 10.1021/jf030479p] Palamidis N., Markakis P. 1975. Stability of grape anthocyanin in a carbonated beverage. J. Food Sci. 40: 1047-1048. [DOI: 10.1111/j

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Influence of education training in patients with type 2 diabetes in the improvement of lifestyle and biochemical characteristics: a randomized controlled trial

increasing the risk of amputation of lower limb. 7 , 8 Diagnosis of diabetes is often driven by the presence of characteristic symptoms, such as thirst, polyuria, weight loss, recurrent infections, and in more severe cases, coma. The final diagnosis can be made if the plasma glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dl. 1 In addition to known risk factors for diabetes (age, obesity, dietary factors, such as increased consumption of animal fats and carbonated beverages, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian

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Sense of smell and volatile aroma compounds and their role in the evaluation of the quality of products of animal origin – a review

-1182. Hausch B.J., Lorj aroenphon Y., Cadwallader K.R. (2015). Flavor chemistry of lemon- lime carbonated beverages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 63: 112-119. Henning H. (1916). Der Geruch J.A. Barth. Leipzig. Hodgen J.M. (2006). Factors influencing off-flavor m beef. Theses and Dissertations in Animal Scien­ce. Paper 1. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from: <http://digitalcommons.unl.edU/animalscidiss/l> Insausti K..Goni V.. Petri E.,Gorraiz C., Beriain M.J. (2005). Effect of weight 3t slaugh­ter on the volatile compounds of cooked beef from

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