On average, there are about 60 kg of rubber in a passenger car, about 67% of which are tires, about 20% of all kinds body seals, doors and windows, suspension elements amount to 5%, the rest are other elements related to the engine (seals, hoses, wires, pads, etc.). Rubber waste is too valuable resource to direct to landfills. The vast majority of recovery of used tires in Poland (over 70%) is carried out by burning tires with energy recovery. Tires in the form of granulate, mixed with coal dust, are burn in some combined heat and power plants. The paper presents results of experimental studies of possible use for energy purposes, granules and pyrolysis oil the resulting from discarded car tires for increasing ecological and energy safety. Energy properties of granulates and pyrolysis oil were investigated and the shape and size of granulate particles were analyzed. For this purpose, digital image processing (CAMSIZER device) and calorimeter were used. It was found that the products of tire recycling decommissioned from exploitationare the high-energy material with good calorific value. Based on the results of experimental studies, application conditions of rubber waste for energy purposes was formulated.
The characteristics of the car tire, and especially its deformation and interaction road, are mainly factors affected the energy consumption of the vehicle and consequently the amount of fuel consumption and emissions to the environment the harmful exhaust gas components. It is estimated that approximately 80-90% of the total energy losses (rolling resistance) are due to internal tire friction, which occurs during its deformation, the remaining 10-20% are ventilation losses, tread face interaction with the road surface and cyclical compression and expansion of air enclosed in the tire. Non-pneumatic tires (NPT) (as a direction of development) are the alternative solutions for conventional tires. Their advantages are as follows maintenance-free and the resistance to typical for pneumatic tires mechanical damages can be a major cause of their widespread use in future (and thus electric) cars. In the available publications, the results of the estimation of the features NPT based on numerical simulations are only presented. There is lack of experimental research results concerning real objects, which determine their driving properties.
Presented work is an attempt to check how the change in wheel structure affects the energy consumption of rolling wheels. Research objects (non-pneumatic tire and pneumatic tire) were selected for the size and destination compatibility. Experimental research were carried out at a universal quasi-static tire testing station, which is located at the Institute of Mechanical Vehicles and Transport at the Department of Mechanical at the Military University of Technology. According to the authors, the obtained results can be an interesting and unique supplement to the problem of assessing the properties of new and future (non-pneumatic tire) construction of vehicle wheels.
concerning the approval of tyres with regard to rolling sound emissions and/or to adhesion on wet surfaces and/or to rolling resistance, 2016.  Regulation No 1222/2009 of EC (25 November 2009) on the labelling of tyres with respect to fuel efficiency and other essential parameters, 2009.  Michelin Performance and Responsibility Report 2007-2008 .  http://www.yrc-pressroom.jp/ir_en/interest/index.html (01/09/2017).  https://www.toyotires.eu/page/index/identifier/silent-wall (access 05/09/2017).  https://www.continental-tires.com/car/tires
cases of exports achieving the same export price from CEECs as from the manufacturer’s home country. This was the case with cartires, produced by the German company Continental in, among other countries, Czechia. Remarkably, labor’s share in value added in 2015 in the latter country was 18% compared with 72% in Germany, consistent with the lower-wage level simply leading to a higher trading surplus. The most important case was that of passenger cars, accounting for over 10% of exports from Czechia and Hungary in 2016 and 20% from Slovakia, albeit with a higher level