Background: Chemotherapies are highly effective in treating most cancers, but their use is limited by potential cardiotoxicity, the most serious of a wide range of adverse effects. The severity of these effects is related to the chemotherapy regimen, patient population characteristics and duration.
Objective: To review strategies to reduce cardiotoxicity in patients who receive chemotherapies.
Materials and Method: We reviewed and abstracted information from published peer review journals and provided examples from our relevant experiences.
Results: The severity of these effects is related to the chemotherapy regimen, patient population characteristics and duration. The incidence of cardiomyopathy because of chemotherapy varies and its onset can be acute (during or shortly after treatment), sub-acute (within days or weeks after completion of chemotherapy) or chronic (weeks to months after drug administration). A number of risk factors may predispose a patient to certain cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicities. These can be identified, monitored, and possibly modified before initiation of cancer therapy so that cardiotoxicity can be prevented where possible.
Conclusion: Cardiotoxicity is an adverse event associated with many cancer therapy agents. The potential for cardiotoxic events should be recognized before therapy is started and serial monitoring of ventricular performance in order to minimize the possibility of irreversible cardiac damage.
Radica Živković Zarić, Marijana Stanojević Pirković and Nedim Hamzagić
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Lymphedema following cancer therapy in Slovenia: a frequently overlooked condition?
Introduction. Secondary lymphedema following cancer therapy is a frequent, often painful, quality of life disturbing condition, reducing the patients' mobility and predisposing them to complications, e.g. infections and malignancies. The critical aspect of lymphedema therapy is to start as soon as possible to prevent the irreversible tissue damage.
Patients and methods. We performed a retrospective study of patients with lymphedema, treated at the Department of Dermatovenereology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, from January 2002 to June 2010. The patients' demographic and medical data were collected, including type of cancer, type and stage of lymphedema, and time to first therapy of lymphedema. The number of referred patients with lymphedema following the therapy of melanoma, breast cancer, and uterine/cervical cancer, was compared to the number of patients expected to experience lymphedema following cancer therapy, calculated from the incidence reported in the literature.
Results. In the period of 8.5 years, 543 patients (432 females, 112 males) with lymphedema were treated. The results show that probably many Slovenian patients with secondary lymphedema following cancer therapy remain unrecognized and untreated or undertreated. In the majority of our patients, the management of lymphedema was delayed; on average, the patients first received therapy for lymphedema 3.6 years after the first signs of lymphedema.
Conclusions. To avoid a delay in diagnosis and therapy, and the complications of lymphedema following cancer therapy, the physician should actively look for signs or symptoms of lymphedema during the follow-up period, and promptly manage or refer the patients developing problems.
Bensu Karahalil, Sevgi Yardım-Akaydin and Sultan Nacak Baytas
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Ashish P. Shah, Chhagan N. Patel, Dipen K. Sureja and Kirtan P. Sanghavi
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Amrit Rai, Josphine Jenifer and Ravi Theaj Prakash Upputuri
carriers for cancertherapy. BioMed Research International. 2014, Article ID 180549, 12 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/180549 (reference [ 6 ]) under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) license.
Process involved in coacervation for the preparation of nanoparticles and crosslinking the particles using glutaraldehyde. Reproduced from Julien Nicolas, Simona Mura, Davide Brambilla, Nicolas Mackiewicz and Patrick Couvreur. Design, functionalization strategies and biomedical applications of targeted biodegradable
Nongluck Ananta-ard, Sureeporn Thanasilp and Chanokporn Jitpanya
neutropenia have been found to have symptoms of fatigue, impairment of physical and social functions, and low coping ability [ 6 ]. A significant correlation between increasing grades of neutropenia with symptom burden and HRQOL was reported after a prospective study [ 7 ].
The Functional Assessment of CancerTherapy–Neutropenia (FACT-N) questionnaire assesses self-reported symptoms and impact on HRQOL associated with neutropenia. The FACT-N questionnaire consists of the 27-item Functional Assessment of CancerTherapy–General (FACT-G), which assesses core HRQOL, and a
Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Josip Madunić, Davorka Breljak, Dean Karaica and Ivan Sabolić
Glucose, the key source of metabolic energy, is imported into cells by two categories of transporters: 1) facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) and 2) secondary active sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Cancer cells have an increased demand for glucose uptake and utilisation compared to normal cells. Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of GLUTs, mainly GLUT1, in many cancer types. As the current standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) for imaging tumour cells via GLUT1 lacks in sensitivity and specificity, it may soon be replaced by the newly designed, highly sensitive and specific SGLT tracer α-methyl-4-(F-18)fluoro-4-deoxy-Dglucopyranoside (Me-4FDG) in clinical detection and tumour staging. This tracer has recently demonstrated the functional activity of SGLT in pancreatic, prostate, and brain cancers. The mRNA and protein expression of SGLTs have also been reported in colon/colorectal, lung, ovarian, head, neck, and oral squamous carcinomas. So far, SGLTs have been poorly investigated in cancer, and their protein expression and localisation are often controversial due to a lack of specific SGLT antibodies. In this review, we describe current knowledge concerning SGLT1 and SGLT2 (over)expression in various cancer types. The findings of SGLTs in malignant cells may help in developing novel cancer therapies with SGLT2 or SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors already used in diabetes mellitus treatment.
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