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References Allen K.A., Coetzee J.F., Edwards- Callaway L.N., Glynn H., Dockweiler J., .Ku - kanich B., Lin H., Wang C., Fraccaro E., Jones M., Bergamasco L. (2013). The effect of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after cautery dehorning with local anesthesia. J. Dairy Sci., 9, p. 1. Anderson D.E., Muir W.W. (2005). Pain management in cattle. Vet. Clin. Food Anim., 21: 623-635. Ayala I., Martos N., Silvan G., Gutierrez- Panizo C., Clavel J., Illera J. (2012). Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serotonin, adrenaline

). Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: antigenic and genetic diversity. Vaccine 31, 886-892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.12.006 PMid:23246548 12. Stipp T., Barry A., Alfieri A., Takiuchi E., Amude A., Alfieri A. (2009). Frequency of BCoV detection by a semi-nested PCR assay in faeces of calves from Brazilian cattle herds. Trop Anim Health Prod. 41, 1563-1567. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9347-2 PMid:19370396 13. Sen, İ., Guzelbektas, H., Yildiz, R. (2013). Neonatal calf diarrhea: Pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical, treatment and

J.T., Short CE.: Preanesthetic evaluation and clinical pathology. In: Principles and Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia , edited by Shot CE, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1987, pp. 3-7. 4. De Rossi R, Almeida R.G, Medeiros U, Righetto F.R, Frazilio F.O.: Subarachnoid butorphanol augments lidocaine sensory anaesthesia in calves. Vet J 2007, 173, 658-663. 5. El-Shobary H.M, Sonbul Z.M, Schricker T.P.: Epidural ketamine for postoperative analgesia in the elderly. M E J Anesth 2008, 19, 1369-1378. 6. Fridericia L.S.: Die systolendauer im electrocardiogramm bei

between 1990 and 2000. Vet Rec 2004, 155, 413-416. 4. Dudek K., Bednarek D., Szacawa E.: Evaluation of immune response in seropositive cattle for Mycoplasma bovis . Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2011, 55, 631-634. 5. Dudek K., Bednarek D., Szymańska-Czerwińska M.: Acute phase response in calves as a result of experimental challenge with Mycoplasma bovis . Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2010, 54, 517-520. 6. Dudek K., Bednarek D.: Last survey of Mycoplasma bovis prevalence in Polish cattle affected with respiratory syndrome. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2012, 56, 447-451. 7. El-Ghmati S

Introduction Congenital intestinal atresia is a defect characterised by the complete closure of a segment of the intestinal tract. Colonic atresia has been reported in humans and domestic animals. In calves, intestinal atresia is identified in different segments of the intestine, including the rectum, anus, colon, and ileum ( 1 , 5 , 18 ). The disease is prevalent among Holstein, Ayrshire, Shorthorn, Simmental, Hereford, Angus, and Maine Anjou breeds and in crossbred cattle. Genetic studies have suggested atresia coli in calves to have an inherited basis, and

References 1. Al-Kassie G.A.M.: Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon on broiler performance. Pak Vet J 2009, 29 , 169-173. 2. Bhatt N., Singh M., Ali A.: Effect of feeding herbal preparations on milk yield and rumen parameters in lactating crossbred cows. Int J Agric Biol 2009, 11 , 721-726. 3. Bombik T., Bombik E., Bis-Wencel H., Saba L.: The effect of a herb extract on the level of selected macroelements in blood serum of calves. Ann Anim Sci 2002, 2 , 155-165. 4. Bombik T., Bombik A., Saba L.: Effects of a herb extract on the

REFERENCES 1. Mee JF: Newborn dairy calf management. Vet Clin North Am 2008, 24:1–17. 2. Silva del Río N, Stewart S, Rapnicki P, Chang YM, Fricke PM: An observational analysis of twin births, calf sex ratio, and calf mortality in Holstein dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2007, 90:1255–1264. 3. Uetake K: Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates. Anim Sci J 2013, 84(2):101-105. 4. Raboisson D, Delor F, Cahuzac E, Gendre C, Sans P, Allaire G: Perinatal, neonatal, and rearing period mortality of dairy calves and replacement heifers in France. J Dairy Sci

Introduction Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the main causes of death in pre-weaned calves and weaned dairy heifers ( 20 ). Histophilus somni , Pasteurella multocida , and Mannheimia haemolytica are frequently implicated as the bacterial pathogens ( 5 ), and BRD is usually treated with antimicrobial drugs. However, the antimicrobial resistance of BRD pathogens has increased in recent years ( 3 ). In addition, the prognosis of BRD is poor. Dairy heifers which had been treated for pneumonia during the first three months of life showed 2.5-times

References 1. Belknap E.B., Ciszewski D.K., Baker J.C.: Experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves and lambs. J Vet Diagn Invest 1995, 7, 285-298. 2. Bryson D.G., Adair B.M., McNulty M.S., McAliskey M., Bradford H.E., Allan G.M., Evans R.T., Forster F.: Studies on the efficacy of intranasal vaccination for the prevention of experimentally induced parainfluenza type 3 virus pneumonia in calves. Vet Rec 1999, 145, 33-39. 3. Dubovi E.J.: Diagnosing BRSV infection: a laboratory perspective. Vet Med 1993, 88, 888-893. 4. Ellis J.A.: Bovine

REFERENCES 1. Blum JW, Hammon H: Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters in neonatal calves. Livest Prod Sci 2000; 66: 151–159. 2. Herosimczyk A, Lepczyński A, Ożgo M, Dratwa-Chałupnik A, Michałek K, Skrzypczak WF: Blood plasma protein and lipid profile changes in calves during the first week of life. Polish J Vet Sci 2013; 16: 425–434. 3. Piccione G, Casella S, Pennisi P, Giannetto C, Costa A, Caola G: Monitoring of physiological and blood parameters during perinatal and neonatal period in calves