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The following proofs of Goldfish more powerful reproductive potential are given: high individual and relative fecundity, adequate fractional spawning process resulting in numerous off spring, represented by different generations of hatchlings, little number of individuals not participating in reproduction, prevailing number of fish eggs in females’ ovaries, larger fraction of impregnated roe. All the above mentioned factors allow claiming that the Prussian carp is being replaced due to its low replacement ability. Perhaps for that reason Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) choose small isolated water bodies, where it makes small populations, backed up by successful spawning with a single male of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758).


Good knowledge of genetic merits governing the inheritance of economic traits is of paramount importance to plant breeders for crop improvement. Objectives of the study were to investigate the genetic nature of ear traits in sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata var. rugosa) based on the general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) analysis, and to determine the breeding potential of eight promising inbred lines for the development of new hybrid cultivars well suited for organic production. Thirty-six genotypes (hybrid families) derived from a half diallel cross design were grown under organic crop management at three agro-ecological zones of the tropics. Although the genotypes varied significantly for all the observed ear traits, some of them showed clear inconsistencies in performing husked ear size (length, diameter, and weight), kernel row number, and kernel number per row across environments. The combining ability analysis showed that additive gene action was more preponderance than non-additive gene actions in governing the inheritance of the studied ear traits. The inbred lines: Caps 5, Caps 17A, Caps 17B, and Caps 22 showed their potential as good partners for the improvement of ear performances as to the development of superior sweet corn cultivars for organic production.


A teak progeny trial was established with four replicates at different sites along the northern Pacific region of Costa Rica. The trials followed a randomized block design, with 28 open pollinated families and 36 seedlings per family per site. Data from 7 years-old trees was analyzed both for each test location separately and for all locations combined. High individual heritability was found for diameter, which translates to higher breeding potential. The all locations combined analysis showed high genetic variation, with individual heritabilities reaching up to 22 %. Genotype by Environment (GxE) interactions explained only 2.5 % of total phenotypic variation. The genetic correlation (rg) among all four sites was 0.69. Hence, it is concluded that GxE interactions are not problematic for breeding purposes since they are not complex in nature. This teak breeding population showed strong genetic stability and performed well in most environments in the study area. The Hojancha location showed high genetic correlation with all other sites; therefore, it should be chosen for future testing and selection of elite genotypes. Selection of the 20 best individuals, allowing for up to two individuals per family, would result in a 1.78 cm (11 %) gain in diameter. Furthermore, based on this selection the inbreeding coefficient (F) in the offspring would only reach 2.9 %, while the expected effective population size (Ne) would be16.97 individuals. This selection scheme could reduce rotation age by almost two years, since the diameter goal of 40 cm would be reached earlier than the usual 20 years cycle. The results suggest that the progeny trial can be maintained as a single breeding population, suitable for planting in any site along the Northern Pacific region of Costa Rica.

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V., Asadi E., Jahanbazi H., Moradi H. et al. 2009. Phenotypic diversity within native Iranian almond ( Prunus spp.) species and their breeding potential. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56: 947–961. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-009-9413-7. Talaei A. 1999. Physiology of temperate zone fruit trees. University of Tehran Printing and Publishing Institute, Iran, 423 p. [in Persian] Tatari M., Ghasemi A., Mousavi A. 2016. Genetic diversity of Jujube germplasm ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) based on morphological and pomological traits in Isfahan province, Iran. Crop Breeding