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References Aaker, D. A. & Joachimsthaler, E. (2000). Brand Leadership . The Free Press. Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand Strategy . The Free Press. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Building Strong Brands . The Free Press. American marketing association. (2011). Marketing Power . Retrieved November 18, 2011 from Bradz (2009). Welcome to the fifth Anual BrandZ Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands Rating . Retrieved January 9, 2012 from

References Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing Brand Equity . New York, NY: The Free Press. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review , 38(3), 102-120. Aggarwal, P. (2004). The effects of brand relationship norms on consumer attitudes and behavior. Journal of Consumer Research , 31 (1), 87–101. Akcura, M., Sinapuelas, I. and Wang, H. (2019). Effects of multitier private labels on marketing national brands. J ournal of Product & Brand Manageme nt, 28 (3), 391-407. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The

24 PROBLEM 25 Knowing isn’t liking Historically, marketers have been taught to believe that having more people know about a brand is always a good thing, and that there is no such thing as bad publicity. The common advice “just make sure they spell your name right” illustrates this thinking. But in today’s world, knowing more about a brand can make people think worse of it. Rather than helping a brand, increased familiar- ity can actually add risk. This is a phenomenon referred to as “negative knowledge.” The term “knowledge” not only means brand

References 1. Aaker, D.A.; Joachimsthaler, E. (2000). Brand Leadership. New York. The Free Press. 2. Aghdaie, S.F.A.; Dolatabadi, H.R.; Aliabadi, V.S. (2012). An Analysis of Impact of Brand Credibility and Perceived Quality on Consumers’ Evaluations of Brand Alliance. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4 (2), 93-102. 3. Ahn, H.; Sung, Y. (2012). A two-dimensional approach to between-partner fit in co-branding evaluations. Journal of Brand Management, 19 (5), 414-424. 4. Anderson, J.R. (2009). Cognitive psychology and its implications. London: MacMillan

References Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing brand equity: capitalizing on the value of a brand name , The Free Press, New York. Ahearne, M., Bhattacharya, C.B. and Gruen, T. (2005), “Antecedents and consequences of customer-company identification: expanding the role of relationship marketing”, Journal of Applied Psychology , Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 574-585. Barone, M.J. and Miniard, P.W. (2002), “Mood and brand extension judgments: Asymmetric effects for desirable versus undesirable brands”, Journal of Consumer Psychology , Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 283-290. Bergami, M. and

10 11 Branding and the Risk Management Imperative Susan Fournier and Shuba Srinivasan Every light has its shadow Of all the assets under marketing control, brands are perhaps the most valued. A strong brand attracts new customers, retains existing cus- tomers and offers a platform for the introduction of new products. A strong brand can reduce risk by encouraging broader stock ownership, insulating a company from mar- ket downturns, granting protection from product failures and reducing variability and volatility in future cash flows. A landmark study

References Ahuvia, A., Bagozzi, R.P. and Batra, R. (2014). Psychometric vs. C-OAR-SE measures of brand love: A reply to Rossiter. Marketing Letters , 25 (2), pp. 235–243. Ahuvia, A.C. (2005). Beyond the Extended Self: Loved Objects and Consumers’ Identity Narratives. Journal of Consumer Research , 32 (1), pp. 171–184. Albert, N. and Merunka, D. (2013). The role of brand love in consumer-brand relationships. Journal of Consumer Marketing , 30 (3), pp. 258–266. Baumann, C., Hamin, H. and Chong, A. (2015). The role of brand exposure and experience on brand recall

to 12.9 %. In Western Europe, the 12 brands that the Volkswagen Group produces – Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT, ŠKODA, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Ducati, Volkswagen Commer- cial Vehicles, Scania and MAN – make up one quarter of all new cars. Each brand has its own character and operates as an independent entity on the market. The product spectrum ranges from motorcycles to low- consumption small cars to luxury vehicles. In the commercial vehicle sector, the products include pick- up trucks, buses and heavy trucks. The Group’s goal is to

References [1] Arnould, Eric J., & Price, Linda L. (1993). River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter. Journal of Consumer Research , pp. 24-45. [2] Brakus, J. Josko., Schmitt, Bernd H., &Zarantonello, Lia. (2009). Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty ? Journal of Marketing , pp. 52–68. [3] Chaplin, Lan Nguyen.,& John, Deborah Roedder. (2005). The Development of Self-Brand Connections in Children and Adolescents. Journal Of Consumer Research , pp. 119-129. [4] Chaudhuri, Arjun.,& Holbrook, Morris

References 1. Altkorn, J. (2002). Kształtowanie rynkowego obrazu firmy. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej. 2. Chen, H.C., Green, R.D. (2009). Marketing mix and branding: competitive hypermarket strategies. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, Vol. 2, No 1, s. 22. 3. Dolak, D. (2008). Building a strong brand: Brands and Branding Basics. Retrieved November, dostęp: 4. Królewski, J. (2013) (ed.), E-marketing. Współczesne trendy. Pakiet startowy. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN. 5. Szwacka