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Reducing the Seismic Vulnerability for RC Buildings by Using Steel Bracing Elements

6. REFERENCES [1] Bush TD, Jones EA, Jirsa JO . Behavior of RC frame strengthened using structural-steel bracing . J Struct Eng-ASCE 1991 ;117(4):1115–26 [2] Badoux M, Jirsa JO . Steel bracing of RC frames for seismic retrofitting . J Struct Eng-ASCE 1990 ;116(1):55–74 [3] Mario D’Aniello – Steel Dissipative Bracing Systems for Seismic Retro fitting of Existing Structures: Theory and Testing [4] Dr. Durgesh C Rai , Review of Documents on Seismic Strengthening of Existing Buildings Department of Civil Engineering Indian

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“Bowstring” Arches in Langer System Without Wind Bracing

Abstract

Arch bridges are slender structures and can be efficiently used in the range of medium to large spans. These structures have an improved aesthetic aspect and in the same time a low construction height, with obvious advantages regarding reduced costs in the infrastructuers and their foundations.

For this type of structures usually composite or orthotropic decks are used. Lately, innovative solutions have been used in designing arch bridges, especially discarding the top wind bracing system. The level of axial forces and bending moments in the arches and tie imply the design of sections with sufficient stiffness and strength in both directions in order to ensure the general stability of the arches, without the need for top wind bracing. Moreover, the cross section of the arches is not constant, but shifts in accordance with the variation of the bending moments, in order to ensure their lateral stability.

This paper studies a road bridge with parallel Bowstring arches, with a span of 108m and a carriageway 7.00m wide, sustained by a deck made up of crossbeams 2m apart and a concrete slab. The main beams are held by ties arranged in the Langer system, 10 to 14m apart from each other. The sag of the arches is 18m high.

The analyzed structure was proposed for construction in the city of Oradea and is used for crossing the “Crişul Repede” river, between Oneştilor street on the left bank and the Sovata, Fagului and Carpaţi streets on the right bank.

The performed analyses have the following two main objectives: to establish the critical load for which the failure of the arches occurs by instability and to underline the influence of different wind bracing systems on the bridge’s collapse loads respectively.

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Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

, 51 (1996), 2, 326–328. [6] Gluck, H. Almost all simply connected surfaces are rigid, Lectures Notes in Mathematics, (1975), No. 438, 225–239 . [7] Nagy, Gy., Diagonal bracing of special cube grids, Acta Technica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 106 (1994), 3-4, 256-273. [8] Nagy, Gy., The Rigidity of Special D Cube Grids, Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest, 39 (1996), 107-112. [9] Nagy, G., Tessellation-like Rod-joint frameworks, Annales Univ. Sci, Budapest, 49 (2006), 3-14. [10] Nagy, G., Katona J., Connectivity for Rigidity

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Cyclic Behavior of Braced Concrete Frames: Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation

University of New York at Buffalo. [8] Shah, V. and Karve, S. (2005), Illustrated Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, 5th Ed., Structures Publication, Parvati. [9] Uniform Building Code (UBC) (1994), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). [10] Xu, S. and Niu, D. (2003), Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Braced Frame. ACI Structural Journal, 100, 120-125. [11] Youssef, M., Ghaffarzadeh, H. and Nehdi, M. (2007), Seismic Performance of RC Frames with Concentric Internal Steel Bracing. Engineering Structures, 29, 1561-1568.

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The Seismic Investigation of Off-Diagonal Steel Braced RC Frames

REFERENCES Abou-Elfath, A., Ghobarah, A. (2000) Behavior of reinforced concrete frames rehabilitated with concentric steel bracing , Can. J. Civil Eng., 27: 433-444. ACI 318 (2005) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) , ACI Committee 318, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. AISC (1999) Load and resistance factor design specification for structural steel buildings . Chicago, IL: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc (AISC), 1999. AISC-05, ANSI/AISC 360 (2005) Specification for

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Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

Rez, Energoprojekt Praha, 2008. [11] KRÁLIK, J. KRÁLIK, J. jr. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of the Steel Bridge Support Resistance due to Extreme Loads, In: 10th International Scientific Conference VSU 2010. Vol.1 : Proceedings. Sofia, Bulgaria, 3.-4.6.2010. Sofia : L.Karavelov Civil Engineering Higher School Sofia, 2010. ISSN 1314-071, p.104-109. [12] KRÁLIK, J. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Steel Frame Bracing System Efficiency. In: Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 390 (2013), pp 172-177, © (2013) Trans

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Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

-488. [4] MELCER, J. - KUCHÁROVÁ, D.: Static and dynamic behaviour of rail concrete slabs. Building Research Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2002, p. 99-111. [5] IVÁNKOVÁ, O. - JAVOREK, T.: Static and dynamic Analysis of the highrise Building - Comparison of computing Results obtained using various software Systems. International Conference VSU´2005, Sofia 2005, pp. 108-111. [6] KRÁLIK, J. - JAVOREK, T.: Numerical analysis of steel structure bracing system with linear and nonlinear characteristics. Proc. 8th Ansys Users´ Meeting, SVS Brno

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Equivalent Stabilizing Force of the Simply Supported Roof Girders Including the Longitudinal Variability of the Compression Force Acting in the Restrained Chord

REFERENCES 1. Biegus A., Czepiżak D.: Global geometrical imperfections for refined analysis of lateral roof bracing systems , Recent Progress in Steel and Composite Structures - Giżejowski et. al. (Eds). XIII International Conference on Metal Structures ICMS2016, Zielona Góra, Poland 15-17 June 2016), CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, London 2016, 187-196. 2. Czepiżak D., Biegus A.: Refined calculation of lateral bracing systems due to global geometrical imperfections , Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 119 (2016) 30-38. 3. Gardner M

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Experimentally Assisted Modelling of the Behaviour of Steel Angle Brace

According to Eurocode 3, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63, 1, 55-70, 2007. 28. PN-3200/B-03200: Steel structures: Static calculations and design. PKNMiJ; Warszawa 1994. 29. EN 1993-1-1, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, Brussels: CEN, 2005. 30. A. BARSZCZ, M. GIŻEJOWSKI, Buckling modes and computational models of compressed bracing members. Inżynieria i Budownictwo, nr 9, 497-502, 2013 [in Polish]. 31. A. M. BARSZCZ, Modelling an d

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Sensitivity Analysis of Buckling Loads of Bisymmetric I-Section Columns with Bracing Elements / Analiza Wrazliwosci Siły Krytycznej Słupa Cienkosciennego Ze Stezeniami

steel structures, J. Constr. Steel Res., 59, 839-865, 2003. 5. H. Gil, J.A. Yura, Bracing requirements of inelastic columns, J. Constr. Steel Res., 59, 1-19, 1999. 6. Z. Waszczyszyn, C. Cichoń, M. Radwańska, Metoda elementów skonczonych w statecznosci konstrukcji, Arkady, Warszawa 1990. 7. S. Weiss, M. Giżejowski, Statecznosc konstrukcji metalowych - Układy pretowe, Arkady, Warszawa 1991. 8. N.S. Trahair, Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Structures, CRC Press, Boca Raton 1993. 9. K. Girgin

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