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References 1. Ackermann M.R., Brogden K.A.: Response of the ruminant respiratory tract to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. Microbes Infect 2000, 2, 1079–1088. 2. Ahn K.K., Lee Y.H., Ha Y., Kim D., Chae S., Kim C.H., Chae C.: Detection by in-situ hybridization of Pasteurella multocida toxin (toxA) gene in the lungs of naturally infected pigs. J Comp Pathol 2008, 139, 51–53. 3. Al-Darraji A.M., Cutlip R.C., Lehmkuhl H.D., Graham D.L.: Experimental infection of lambs with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Pasteurella haemolytica : pathologic studies

Derg 2014, 61, 43–48. 6. Avci O., Yavru S., Ekik M.: Detection of respiratory viral antigens in cattle lung tissues by direct ELISA. Anim Vet Sci 2014, 2, 146–149. 7. Avci O., Yavru S., Sevik M.: Antibody prevalence against respiratory viruses in naturally infected cattle in Central Anatolia. Eurasian J Vet Sci 2014, 30, 80–84. 8. Baker J.C., Werdin R.E., Ames T.R., Markham R.J.F., Larson V.L.: Study on the etiologic role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in pneumonia of dairy calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986, 189, 66–86. 9. Bertolotti L., Giammarioli M., Rosati S

parainfluenza-3 virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2010, 3, 575-593. 5. Ellis J.A., Gow S.P., Goji N.: Response to experimentally induced infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus following intranasal vaccination of seropositive and seronegative calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010, 236, 991-999. 6. Van der Fels-Klerx H.J., Sørensen J.T., Jalvingh A.W., Huirne R.B.: An economic model to calculate farm-specific losses due to bovine respiratory disease in dairy heifers. Prev Vet Med 2001, 51, 75-94. 7. Larsen L.E.: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): a review

proteins of Mannheimia haemolytica confers partial protection. Vaccine , 30, 5, 969—973. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.044. 12. Meyer, G., Cuquemelle, A., Delverdier, M., Ronsin, L., Gallard, Y., Teillaud, A., 2015: Protection des veaux contre le virus respiratoire syncytial bovin par la vaccination des vaches en fin de gestation (Protection of young calves against bovine respiratory syncytial virus by vaccination of the cows at the end of pregancy). In Journées Nationales GTV, 2015, Nantes, France, Mai 20—22, 771—775. 13. Pardon, B., Alliet, J., Boone, R

Abstract

A total of 131 blood samples and 175 spleen samples were collected from three cervid species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) inhabiting the continental part of Croatia. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza-3 virus, bluetongue virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis E virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and enzootic bovine leukosis virus. The tested sera were negative for bovine viral diarrhoea virus, enzootic bovine leukosis virus, bluetongue virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and hepatitis E virus antybodies. The antibody prevalence in roe deer and red deer samples was 21.11% for bovine herpesvirus 1 and 75.55% for parainfluenza-3 virus. Sera from bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals were subsequenty tested with comparative virus neutralization test and bovine herpesvirus 1 neutralising antibodies were found in 18 (out of 19) sera. In fallow deer, no antibodies against any of the viral pathogens were detected. All spleen samples tested for bovine viral diarrhoea virus and enzootic bovine leukosis virus came back negative, except for one red deer spleen sample found to be weakly diarrhoea virus-positive. Our findings provide the first information on the exposure of Croatia-inhabiting cervid species to viral pathogens, and could serve as valuable baseline data for future investigations regarding deer exposure to various pathogens and the distribution of diseases shared between wildlife and livestock. As of now, the epidemiology of these viruses in the Croatian cervid population has been only poorly understood, so that further research is recommended.

, Sahin T, Aktas MS: Clinical utility of lactate in calves with bovine respiratory disease. J Anim Vet Advances 2010, 9:1955-1957. 16. Ellis J, Waldner Ch, Gow S, Jackson M: Relationship of the extent of pulmonary lesions to the partial pressure of oxygen and the lactate concentration in arterial blood in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can J Vet Res 2013, 77:205-210. 17. Jackson PGG, Cockcroft PD: Clinical examination of farm animals. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom, Blackwell Publishing Company; 2002, 1-112. 18

experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus and/or Mannheimia haemolytica . J Vet Med B 2003, 50 , 183-190. 12. Heegaard P.M.H., Godson D.L., Toussaint M.J.M., Tjørnehøj K., Larsen L.E., Viuff B., Rønsholt L.: The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2000, 77 , 151-159. 13. Horadagoda N.U., Knox K.M.G., Gibbs H.A., Reid S.W., Horadagoda A., Edwards S.E., Eckersall P.D.: Acute phase proteins in cattle; discrimination between

acute phase proteins in calves. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2007, 30:143-151. 7. Orro T, Pohjanvirta T, Rikula U, Huovilainen A, Alasuutari S, Sihvonen L, Pelkonen S, Soveri T: Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2011, 34:23-29. 8. Fratrić N, Gvozdić D, Vuković D, Savić O, Buač M, Ilić V: Evidence that calf bronchopneumonia may be accompanied by increased sialylation of circulating immune complexes’ IgG. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2012, 150

2008, 7, 1080-1086. 13. Matsumoto K., Yobimoto K., Huong Thu Thi N., Fattah-Abdel M., Hien T.V., Watanable H.: Psychological stress - induced enhancement of brain lipid peroxidation via nitric oxide systems and its modulation by anxiolyc and anxiogenic drugs in mice. Brain Res 1999, 839, 74-84. 14. Orro T., Pohjanvirta T., Rikula U., Huovilainen A., Alasuutari S., Sihvonen L., Pelkonen S., Soveri T.: Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2011, 34

response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2000, 77 , 151-159. 11. Krzyżowska M., Wincenciak M., Winnicka A., Baranowski A., Jaszczak K., Zimny J., Niemiałtowski M.: The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice. Pol J Vet Sci 2010, 13 , 423-430. 12. Nikunen S., Härtel H., Orro T., Neuvonen E., Tanskanen R., Kivelä S.L., Sankari S., Aho P., Pyörälä S., Saloniemi H., Soveri T.: Association of