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Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of Cystatin C (CysC) to biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mass, and to evaluate its prognostic significance in elderly males with chronic heart failure (CHF).
Methods: A prospective cohort study was executed on sixtyeight males (mean age 68±7 years) with mild to moderate CHF, together with 19 of corresponding age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals who underwent cardio vascular, bone mineral density (BMD), and body com position assessment. Biochemical assessment of all subjects included NT-pro-BNP, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), CysC, and biochemical markers of bone turnover including osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), β-CrossLaps (β-CTx), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL).
Results: Serum CysC was significantly increased in males with CHF in comparison to healthy control ones. A significant positive association was found between CysC levels and OC in males with CHF, while OC and β-CTx increased in increasing CysC tertiles. In multivariate regression analysis, OC and smoking were a significant determinant of CysC in males with CHF. Level of CysC was found to be positively associated with an increased fatal risk in males with CHF.
Conclusions: Serum osteocalcin is an independent predictor of CysC level in elderly males with CHF. Higher CysC level showed a negative relation to survival and bone loss in males with CHF. Further research is needed to confirm the potential role of CysC in the crosstalk between heart, kidney, bone, and energy metabolism in CHF.
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The study examines the acute response of bone turnover markers to two different single bouts of resistance exercises in women. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and sclerostin concentration were measured before, 24 and 48 hours after the interventions to detect the dynamics of bone turnover. Subjects performed two exercises and a control experiment without exercise (CONTR) on different occasions, with 3-week breaks between the interventions, in a random order. First exercises protocol had a constant resistance of 75 % 1 RM (ISOF). Second, serial stretch loading (SSL), was isokinetic: velocity of concentric and eccentric phase of the movement was 50 and 40 cm/s, respectively. Short stops were incorporated into both phases of the movement after every 20 mm, resulting in a frequency of the force peaks of 10 Hz in concentric as well as in eccentric phase. Both protocols consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions and 2-minute resting periods. The exercises interventions had no statistically significant effect on either bone turnover marker concentration at any of the time points.