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References Garcia-Perez MA, Moreno-Mercer J, Tarin JJ, et al. Relationship between PTH, sex steroid and bone turnover marker measurements and bone density in recently postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2003; 30; 45: 67-74. Allende-Vigo MZ. The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. P R Health Sci J 2007; 26: 91-5. Majkić-Singh N, Ilić M, Ignjatović S, et al. Assessment of four biochemical markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clin Lab 2002; 48: 407-13. Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Chapuy MC, et al. Increased bone

. Low serum levels of alkaline phosphatase of bone origin: a good marker of adynamic bone disease in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996; 11: 1065-72. Alvarez L, Torregrosa JV, Peris P, Monegal A, Bedini JL, Matrinez De Osaba MJ, Filella X, Martin G, Ricos C, Oppenheimer F, Ballesta AM. Effect of hemodialysis and renal failure on serum biochemical markers of bone turnover. J Bone Miner Metab 2004; 22: 254-9. Noordzij M, Korevaar JC, Boeschoten EW, Dekker FW, Bos WJ, Krediet RT. Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD

REFERENCES 1. Delmas PD, Confavreux E, Garnero P, Fardellone P, de Vernejoul MC, Cormier C, et al. A combination of low doses of 17 beta-estradiol and norethisterone acetate prevents bone loss and normalizes bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international: a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 2000; 11: 177–87. 2. Dresner-Pollak R, Parker RA, Poku M, Thompson J, Seibel MJ, Greenspan SL. Biochemical markers of bone turnover reflect


Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of Cystatin C (CysC) to biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mass, and to evaluate its prognostic significance in elderly males with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was executed on sixtyeight males (mean age 68±7 years) with mild to moderate CHF, together with 19 of corresponding age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals who underwent cardio vascular, bone mineral density (BMD), and body com position assessment. Biochemical assessment of all subjects included NT-pro-BNP, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), CysC, and biochemical markers of bone turnover including osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), β-CrossLaps (β-CTx), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL).

Results: Serum CysC was significantly increased in males with CHF in comparison to healthy control ones. A significant positive association was found between CysC levels and OC in males with CHF, while OC and β-CTx increased in increasing CysC tertiles. In multivariate regression analysis, OC and smoking were a significant determinant of CysC in males with CHF. Level of CysC was found to be positively associated with an increased fatal risk in males with CHF.

Conclusions: Serum osteocalcin is an independent predictor of CysC level in elderly males with CHF. Higher CysC level showed a negative relation to survival and bone loss in males with CHF. Further research is needed to confirm the potential role of CysC in the crosstalk between heart, kidney, bone, and energy metabolism in CHF.

REFERENCES 1. Ebeling PR, Atley LM, Guthrie JR, Burger HG, Dennerstein L, Hopper JL, et al. Bone turnover markers and bone density across the menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81: 3366–71. 2. Slemenda C, Hui SL, Longcope C, Johnston CC. Sex steroids and bone mass. A study of changes about the time of menopause. J Clin Invest. 1987; 80: 1261–9. 3. Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Chapuy MC, Delmas PD. Increased bone turnover in late postmenopausal women is a major determinant of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1996; 11: 337–49. 4. Rosen CJ, Chesnut

critical care medicine, Vol. 174, 2006. 14. Mora S, Pitukcheewanont P, and all. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and the volume and the density of bone in children at different stages of sexual development. Journal of bone and mineral research; Volume 14, Number 10, 1999. 15. Schulze KJ, O’Brien K, and all. Efficiency of calcium absorption is not compromised in clinically stable prepubertal and pubertal girls with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 110-6. 16. Stephenson A, Jamal S, Dowdell T, et al. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in adults with cystic

cervix. Calcif. Tissue Int. 73, 9-14. Ekman S., Skioldebrandt E., Heinegård D., Hultenby K. 2005. Ultrastructural immunolocalisation of bone sialoprotein in the osteocartilagenous interface of the equine third carpal bone. Equine. Vet. J. 7, 26-30. Fassbender W.J., Ruf T., Kaiser H.E., Stracke H. 2000. Serum levels of immunoreactive bone sialoprotein in osteoporosis: positive relations to established biochemical parameters of bone turnover. In Vivo 14, 619-624. Felson D. 2004. An update on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Radiol. Clin. North

Res 11, 1531-38, 1996. 5. Garnero P., Sornay-Rendu E., Claustrat B., Delmas P.D.: Biochemicalmarkers of bone turnover, endogenous hormones and the risk offractures in postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res., 15, 1526-36, 2000. 6. Garnero P.: Bone markers in osteoporosis. Curr. Osteoporos. Rep., 7, 84-90, 2009. 7. Hansen M., Overgaard K., Riis B., Christiansen C.: Role of peak bonemass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12 year study. BMJ, 303, 961-64, 1991. 8. Jurkowski P., Mierzwińska-Nastalska E., Kostrzewa-Janicka J.: Use of Biochemical Markers of

. Does vitamin D play a significant role in type 2 diabetes? BMC Endocr Disord 15: 5, 2015. 9. Larson-Meyer DE, Willis KS. Vitamin D and athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep 9: 220-226, 2010. 10. World Health Organization (WHO) . Obesity and overweight 2015. Accessed at: 11. Kanis JA, Melton LJ 3rd, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N. The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9: 1137-1141, 1994. 12. Malecha-Jędraszek A, Burska A, Donica H et al. Selected markers of bone turnover in type 2 diabetic


The study examines the acute response of bone turnover markers to two different single bouts of resistance exercises in women. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and sclerostin concentration were measured before, 24 and 48 hours after the interventions to detect the dynamics of bone turnover. Subjects performed two exercises and a control experiment without exercise (CONTR) on different occasions, with 3-week breaks between the interventions, in a random order. First exercises protocol had a constant resistance of 75 % 1 RM (ISOF). Second, serial stretch loading (SSL), was isokinetic: velocity of concentric and eccentric phase of the movement was 50 and 40 cm/s, respectively. Short stops were incorporated into both phases of the movement after every 20 mm, resulting in a frequency of the force peaks of 10 Hz in concentric as well as in eccentric phase. Both protocols consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions and 2-minute resting periods. The exercises interventions had no statistically significant effect on either bone turnover marker concentration at any of the time points.