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, 119-126. 3. Bernabucci, U., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Nardone, A., 2005: Influence of body condition score on relationships between metabolic status and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 2017-2026. 4. Block, S. S., Butler, W. R., Ehrhardt, R. A., Bell, A. W., Van Amburgh, M. E., Boisclair, Y. R., 2001: Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. J. Endocrinol., 171, 339-48. 5. Bradford, B. J., Allen, M. S., 2008: Negative energy balance increases periprandial ghrelin and

processes during the transition period to produce good quality colostrum and subsequently milk ( 31 ). Most cows suffer from clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first days of lactation, and total plasma calcium levels reach their physiological level 2 to 3 days after parturition ( 17 , 32 ). Clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively affects energy metabolism and the immune status of cows and a variable degree of Ca insufficiency impairs leukocyte activity ( 24 ). The body condition score (BCS) is a useful and simple method to assess an animal’s energy

References Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., Mc Gowa n J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J. (2015). Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 1019-1032. Busato A., Faissle D., Kupfer U., Blum J.W. (2002). Body condition scores in dairy cows: associations with metabolic and endocrine changes in healthy dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med., 49

References 1. Adamski M.: Kondycja krów w okresie okołoporodowym a poziom wybranych parametrów krwi i płodności. Publication of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, 2010, pp. 7-84. 2. Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., McGowan J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J.: Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci 2015, 98, 1019-1032. 3. Banos

. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T., Webster, G. 1989: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72, 68-78. 9. Enwonwu, C. O., Stambaugh, R., Sreebny, L., 1971: Synthesis and degradation of liver ribosomal RNA in fed and fasted rats. J. Nutr., 101, 337-346. 10. Fon Tacer, K., Rozman, D., 2011: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: focus on lipoprotein and lipid deregulation. J. Lipids, 2011, 783-976. 11. Gumulec, J., Masařík, M., Křížová, S., Babula, P., Hrabec, R., Rovný, A., Masaříková, M., Kizek, R., 2011: Molecular

: Associations between types of lameness and fertility. Vet. Rec. , 125, 103—106. 4. Danscher, A. M., Toelboell, T. H., Wattle, O., 2010: B iomechanics and histology of bovine claw suspensory tissue in early acute laminitis. J. Dairy Sci. , 93, 53—62. 5. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T., Webster, G., 1989: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. , 72, 68—78. 6. Egger-Danner, C., Nielsen, P., Fiedler, A., Müller, K., Fjeldaas, T., Döpfer, D., et al., 2015: ICAR Claw Health Atlas. Rome, ICAR , 45 pp. http

cysts, mono- and polyoocyte follicles in gilts. Acta Vet Beograd 2014, 64: 24-32 11. Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1989, 72: 68-78. 12. Boshier DP, Holloway H, Kitchin LF: A comparison of standard lipid staining techniques used in electron microscopic studies of mammalian tissues. Stain Technol 1984, 59: 83 13. Weibel ER: Principles and methods for morphometric study of the lung and other organs. Lab Invest 1963, 12: 131-155. 14. Juengel JL, Garverick HA, Johnson AL, Youngquist

References 1. Cerri, R.L.A., Santos, J.E.P., & Juchem. S.O., Galvao, K.N., Chebel, R.C. (2004). Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(11), 3704-3715. 2. Edmonson, A.J., Lean, I.J., Weaver, L.D., Farver, T. and Webster, G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72(1), 68-78. 3. Kamimura, S., Ohgi, T., & Takahashi, M., Tsukamoto, T. (1993). Postpartum resumption of ovarian activity and uterine involution

References Carroll C.L., Huntington P.J. (1988). Body condition scoring and weight estimation of horses. Equine Vet. J., 20: 41–45. Courcier E.A., Mellor D.J., Pendlebury E., Evans C., Yam P.S. (2012). Preliminary investigation to establish prevalence and risk factors for being overweight in pet rabbits in Great Britain. Vet. Rec., 171: 197–197. Edmonson A.J., Lean I.J., Weaver L.D., Farver T., Webster G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 68–78. Fritz U., Branch W.R., Hofmeyr M.D., Maran J., Prokop H., Schleicher A

REFERENCES 1. Buckley, F., O’Sullivan, K., Mee, J.F., Evans, R.D., Dillon, P. (2003). Relationships among milk yield, body condition, cow weight, and reproduction in spring-calved Holstein-Friesians. J Dairy Sci. 86 (7): 2308-2319. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73823-5 2. Houghton, P.L., Lemenager, R.P., Moss, G.E., Hendrix, K.S. (1990). Prediction of postpartum beef cow body composition using weight to height ratio and visual body condition score. J Anim Sci. 68 (5):1428-1437. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.6851447x PMid:2365655 3. Gillund, P