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. Journal of Health Sciences 3(8), 153-178. 17. Poliszczuk T., Broda D. (2010). Somatic constitution and the ability to maintain dynamic body equilibrium in girls practicing rhythmic gymnastics. Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism 16(2), 94-99. 18. Nowacka-Chiari E. (2005). The physique of young female swimmers. Słupskie Prace Biologiczne 1, 127-133. [in Polish] 19. Smolarczyk M., Wiśniewski A., Czajkowska A., Kęska A., Tkaczyk J. (2012). The physique and body composition of students studying physical education: A preliminary report. Pediatric

JW, Spiering W, Visseren FL; SMART Study Group. Increased visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased resting heart rate in patients with manifest vascular disease. Obesity. 2012 ;20:834-41 4. Speakman JR, Westerterp KR. Associations between energy demands, physical activity, and body composition in adult humans between 18 and 96 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:826-34. 5. Steen B. Body composition and aging. Nutr Res. 1988;46(2): 45-51. 6. Dey DK, Bosaeus I. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance prediction equations for fat-free mass in a population

-374 Jason DV, Mc Guıgan MR. Relationship between sprinting, agility and jump ability in female athletes. J Sports Sci, 2008; 26(1): 97-107 Kin-İşler A, Arıburun B, Özkan A, Aytar A, Tandoğan R. The relationship between anaerobic performance, muscle strength and sprint ability in American football players. Isokinet Exerc Sci, 2008; 16: 87-92 Klingenstierna U, Renstrom P, Grimby G, Morelli B. Isokinetic strength training in below-knee amputees. Scand J Rehab Med, 1990; 22:39-4 Mayhew JL, Hancock K, Rollison L, Ball TE, Bowen JC. Contributions of strength and body

D concentrations in obese women: their clinical significance and relationship with anthropometric and body composition variables. J Endocrinol Invest 2007; 30: 653-658. 13. Alemzadeh R, Kichler J, Babar G, Calhoun M, 2008 Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism 57: 183-191. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2007.08.023. 14. Garanty-Bogacka B, Syrenicz M, Goral J, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) in obese adolescents. Endokrynol Pol 2011: 62: 506-511. 15. Jungert A, Roth

Introduction Resistance training (RT) is a very popular form of physical training for increasing strength and skeletal muscle mass. Adaptive responses to RT include the enhancements of general health, body composition, and athletic performance ( Kraemer et al., 2002a ). For each purpose, different RT schemes are recommended through manipulation of the acute training variables, such as the load, volume, frequency, rest interval, velocity of execution, range of motion, as well as the choice and order of exercises ( American College of Sports Medicine [ACSM], 2009

total energy expenditure and energy deposition. Am J Clin Nutr 79:1078-87. Campbell-Brown M, Hytten F. 1998. Nutrition. In G Chamberlain and PF Broughton, editors. Clinical physiology in obstetrics. 3rd edition. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Science: 165-91. Ellison PT. 2001. On fertile ground. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Forsum E, Sadurskis A, Wager J. 1988. Resting metabolic rate and body composition of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 47:942-47. Forsum E. 2004. Energy requirements during pregnancy: old questions and new

Introduction For dancers, being a particular group of athletes, the optimal body composition serves as the means for achieving both the physiological needs of a healthy body and the esthetic goal of thinness to obtain maximum onstage performance. Previous studies investigated the body composition of female dancers aiming either to provide descriptive characteristics of dancers or to determine the optimal body composition, which would maintain the best standards of health and improve training techniques [ 1 , 2 ]. The above studies indicated that even though

intake and independence in old age. British Journal of Sports Medicine 43, 342-346. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2007.044800. Chodńko-Zajko W.J., Proctor D.N., Fiatarone Singh M.A., Minson C.T., Nigg C.R., Salem G.J. et al. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41(7), 1510-1530. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b01 3e3181a0c95c. Ignasiak Z., Skrzek A., Da̧browska G. (2009). Bone mineral density and body composition of senior female students of the University of the Third Age in view

tobacco cessation counselling. The rehabilitation’s benefits are symptoms decrease, a better effort tolerance, decreased frequency of exacerbations and hospitalisation time and overall improvement of quality of life. Thus, the patient is allowed to be socially reintegrated ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). We conducted a small interventional prospective study on patients with various pulmonary pathologies in which we analysed RR effects on body composition. For patients with respiratory diseases, the modified nutritional status (either obesity or malnutrition/cachexia) can negatively

–252. Recommended energy and nutrient intake for Latvian population (approved by Ministry of Health of the Republic of Latvia in 2008) http://www.vm.gov.lv/images/userfiles/ieud.pdf Rickenlund, A., Eriksson, M. J., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., Hirschberg, A. L. (2005). Amenorrhea in female athletes is associated with endothelial dysfunction and unfavorable lipid profile. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 90 (3), 1354–1359. Soric, M., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Pedisic, Z. (2008). Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab