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Market Trends, 3(1), 61-87. Lückerath-Rovers, M., (2013). Women on boards and firm performance. Journal of Management & Governance, 17(2), 491-509. MacAvay, (1999). The Active Board of Directors and Its Effect on the Performance of the Large Publicly Traded Corporation. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 11(4), 8-20. Mahadeo, J. (2012). Board Composition and Financial Performance: Uncovering the Effects of Diversity in an Emerging Economy. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(3), 375-388. Minichilli, A., et al. (2009). Making Boards Effective: An Empirical

-Labanauske, K., & Kriauciunas, A. (2018, July). Edith Penrose and Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald J. Salancik: Is there room for complementarity? . (Academy of Management Proceedings No. 1, p. 15702). Briarcliff Manor, NY: Academy of Management. Bailey, B., & Peck, S. (2013). Boardroom strategic decision-making style: Understanding the antecedents. Corporate Governance: An International Review , 21 (2), 131-146. Bainbridge, S. (2015). The board of directors. In J. Gordon, & W. Ringe (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate law and governance . Oxford: Oxford Handbooks Online

. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 37: 315-342, Andow, Helen Afang and Bature Musa David (2016). Ownership structure and the financial performance of listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria. The Business and Management Review, 7(3). Belkhir, M. (2009). Board of directors’ size and performance in the banking industry. International Journal of Managerial Finance, 5(2): 201-221, Bugshan, T. (2005). Corporate Governance, Earning Management and the Information Content of Accounting

the board of directors. Journal of Banking and Finance , 32 (12), 2570-2580. Fama, E., & Jensen, M. (1983). Separation of ownership and control. Journal of Law and Economics , 26 , 301-326. Ferrero, I. F., María, Á. F., & María, J. M. (2016). The effect of environmental, social and governance consistency on economic results. Sustainability , 8 (10), 1-16. Fernandes, C., Farinha, J., Martins, F. V., & Mateus, C. (2017). Supervisory boards, financial crisis and bank performance: Do board characteristics matter?. Journal of Banking Regulation , 18 , 310


The underlying causes for the low representation of women on board directorships has been the subject of considerable research when viewed in the context of North American, European and Asian economies and markets. In Africa, very few studies exist that examine this reality even if the socio-economic situation increasingly requires it. Indeed, women are a pillar of the social and economic life of African countries, as they constitute the equilibrium point of family stability and contributors to various essential economic activities alongside men in their community and country. This central role of African woman in all civic endeavours stands in stark contradiction to their general absence on the Board of Directors of most African companies. Although a recent ADB study indicates that the percentage of African women on boards is higher than on some other continents’ nonetheless, the fact remains that this low representation is astonishing. This research aims to understand the cause and effect relationship and to identify the determinants of this low representation of women as sitting board members. It is based on semi-structured interviews with women who are voting members on existing Boards of Directors of large firms in the public and private sectors. It shows that the low representation of women in boardrooms is explained more by socio-cultural factors rather than any organizational flaws or personal issues with these women.

References Amran,N. A. et al. (2013).Do Characteristics of CEO and Chairman InfluenceGovernment- Linked Companies performance? 2nd World Conference on Business, Economics and Management. Elsevier Ltd, 800-803. Arellano, M. (1987). Computing robust standard errors for within-groups estimators. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 49(4), 431-434. Baysinger, B. D., Butler, H. N. (1985). Corporate Governance and the Board of Directors: Performance Effects of Changes in Board Composition. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, 1(1), 101-124. Bebchuk, L. A

- side of Germany. THe inTerVieWer Th is interview was conducted in August 2011 by the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Dr. h. c. Hermann Diller. AbOuT HuberTine underberg-ruder Hubertine Underberg-Ruder graduated in microbiology. After working for the Ministry of Agriculture in the netherlands, she moved into the family business, headquartered in Dietlikon, switzerland. Dr. Underberg-Ruder has been the President of the Board of Directors of Underberg AG, the swiss parent company, and Chair of the Advisory Board of the German com- panies since 1991. she is married to Dr

6. References Adigüzel, H. (2013). Corporate Governance, Family Ownership and Earnings Management: Emerging Market Evidence. Accounting and Finance Research, 2(4), 17-33. Ahmadi, A., & Bouri, A. (2017). Board of directors’ composition and performance in French CAC 40 listed firms. Accounting, 3(4), 245-256. https://dx.doi.Org/10.5267/ Al-Daoud, K. I., Saidin, S. Z., & Abidin, S. (2016). Board meeting and firm performance: Evidence from the Amman stock exchange. Corporate Board: Role, Duties


The main goal of the present research is to address the role and importance of audited financial statements in increasing the efficiency of credit risk management in the banking system of Kosovo. In addition, the research will help users understand the financial statement assurance process and the audit process work for a proper assessment of credit risk by banks. The research is treated in sections as below: the first section includes a review of literature (theoretical and empirical review) related to theoretical concepts regarding the importance and development of financial statement audit at financial institutions, in region and beyond. The second section includes a general overview of the relationship between audit of financial statements of clients that establish financial relations with banks and credit risk management. The third section presents the results of the survey and the confirmation of the formulated hypotheses. The last part of the paper presents conclusions and recommendations that have arisen from our study. The main method during our research has been the use of qualitative/quantitative analysis, which has been carried out during various techniques, among which the main ones are the survey interviews & internal observation of processes based on our own professional experience in the banking channels. The paper aspires to provide a better understanding of challenges in assuring qualitative accounting information for decision-making, as well as presents the basis for further study of this issue in the future. The results of the study aim at adding the value to regulatory bodies’ documents such as politics/strategies/instructions and also setting new rules in regard to credit risk management.

to the highest realms of newspaper corporations by means of statistical inference have turned out to be largely inconclusive ( Baker 2007 ). This article presents a study ( Ohlsson 2012 ) that adopts a somewhat different approach to the analysis of ownership influence in the press. It does so by focusing on the main instrument through which ownership control is expected to be exercised in all stock corporations: the board of directors. The reason for this is the concept of separation of liabilities , one of the key legal principles of the stock corporation as an