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]. With a resemblance to the previously existing term “Pharmacovigilance”, the word “Hemovigilance” was invented in France in1990. It is derived from the Greek word “ haema ” which means blood and the Latin word “ vigilans ” which means watchful/ paying special attention to/ keep watching. As the term enlightens the aforementioned, the purpose of hemovigilance is to enhance the quality and safety of the blood transfusion chain, first and foremost focusing on the blood safety [ 6 ]. As defined by Faber, hemovigilance is “a set of surveillance procedures covering the

Abstract

The Safety of the Blood Supply in any country is of utmost importance to safeguard patients from serious adverse events of blood transfusion. Implementation of a Quality System in the Blood Transfusion Service, with support of Government and Ministry of Health is a key element to guarantee safe blood. The IPA TAIB 2009 project - Strengthening of the Blood Safety System executed in 2013/14 provided the means to start implementing a Quality System in the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia. This project aimed to ultimately bring the Blood Transfusion Service to European Union standards, allowing the exchange of blood components and all other types of collaboration with other European Union countries in future. The project put the basis for unification of blood transfusion standards and operating procedures in the whole country as well as set up essential education of blood transfusion personnel.

it can be also associated to risks and to certain complications, which could have important effects on public health and confidence in blood safety. Complications commonly associated with transfusion include immune-mediated (haemolytic and febrile non haemolytic reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury, allergic reactions, post transfusion purpura and transfusion-secondary graft versus host disease) and non-immune transfusion reactions (transfusion related circulatory overload and, particularly, transfusion transmitted infections, TTIs) ( 2 ). Generally

References 1. Kaur G, Kaur P. Syphilis testing in blood donors: an update. Blood Transfusion. 2015;13(2):197. (PMID: 25545876). 2. Organization WH. Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections: recommendations: World Health Organization; 2010. http://www.who.int/blood-safety/ScreeningTTI.pdf 3. Loeffelholz MJ, Binnicker MJ. Point-Counterpoint: It is time to use treponemal-specific antibody screening tests for the diagnosis of syphilis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011:JCM. 06347-11. (PMID: 22090405). 4. Sommese L, De Pascale MR, Capuano M, Napoli C

bleeding rates and worsen the prognosis of infected haemophiliacs. TTVIs are particularly undesirable in haemophiliacs in countries such as Nigeria, as they would invariably worsen the prognosis of an already under-treated inherited bleeding disorder. The risk of acquiring TTVIs among haemophiliacs in Nigeria, and indeed other developing countries, can only be significantly reduced by upgrading the national transfusion service and blood safety protocols. This must include efficient donor screening procedures, effective viral inactivation techniques, and the production or

, according to WHO 2011 global blood safety statistics, in low-income countries, only 31% of blood was fractionated, compared with 91% and 72% observed in high- and middle-income countries, respectively [ 1 ]. Red blood cell suspensions contain approximately 20–40 mL of plasma, and once the contents of HBV DNA in the plasma reach over 1 geq/20 mL, HBV infection may transpire [ 11 ]. Compared with repetitive blood donors, first-time blood donors display higher risk of HBV infection. For example, in Africa, the detection rate of HBV DNA for first-time blood donors totals 120

. The clinical plasma proteome: a survey of clinical assays for proteins in plasma and serum. Clin Chem 2010; 56: 177-85. WHO Blood safety and clinical technology, Report WHO consultation on International biological standards for in vitro diagnostic procedure, Genewa, 14-15 september, Switzerland, 2000: 17pp. http://irmm.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Wild D, editor. The Immunoassay Handbook, 3 rd ed. Elsevier Ltd, 2005: 930pp. Bristow A, Berger P, Bidart JM, Birken S, Norman R, Stenman UH, et al. Establishment, value assignment, and characterization of new WHO reference reagents