Large-scale river regulation, drainage and intense farming in the Barycz valley initiated in 17th century activated a transformation of the initial alluvial and swamp-alluvial soils. Soils on the Holocene flooded terraces have deep, acid humus horizons (umbric) and gleyic properties at shallow depth, but have no stratification of parent material to a depth of 100 cm. Despite the location in the floodplain, soils cannot be classified as black-earth alluvial soils (mady czarnoziemne) using the criteria of Polish soil classification (2011). The soils on the Pleistocene non-flooded terraces have a deep, base-saturated humus horizon (mollic) and gleyic properties in the lower part of soil profile, which allows to classify them as the black earths (czarne ziemie). Prominent stratification of the parent material well preserved in these soils has no influence on their classification (due to the age sediments). Almost all humus horizons of these soils meet the definition of anthric characteristics, and more than half of the studied soils can be classified as culturozemic soils - rigosols - which emphasises the important role of man in the transformation and gaining of morphological features of these soils. The lack of precise criteria for identifying soil types in the chernozemic order of the Polish soil classification (2011) causes difficulties in the classification of soils on the river terraces, in particular, in distinguishing between black-earth alluvial soils and black earths.
Aldona Mueller-Bieniek, Piotr Kittel, Błażej Muzolf, Katarzyna Cywa and Przemysław Muzolf
The study examined plant remains from the Smólsk 2/10 site, situated on the border of two different landscapes and preserving traces of Neolithic occupation from several cultures: Early Linear Pottery culture (LBK, ca 5300-5200 cal. BC to ca 5000 cal. BC). Stroke Band Pottery culture (SBP, ca 4700-4400 cal. BC), the Brześć Kujawski group of Lengyel culture (BKG, ca 4500-4000/3900 cal. BC), Funnel Beaker culture (TRB, ca 3950-3380 BC), and also some features of the Lusatian culture (Hallstatt C, ca 970-790 cal. BC).
Mostly hulled wheat remains (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccum) were found in the LBK, SBP, and BKG cultures; they were completely absent in younger cultures (TRB, Lusatian), where barley remains appeared. Among other plants the most numerous were remains of small-grain grasses (mostly cf. Hierochloë type), feather grass (Stipa sp.), wild buckwheat (Fallopia convolvulus), and goosefoot (Chenopodium album type), but the plant remains are relatively scarce.
The archaeobotanical data obtained from the site supplement data from neighbouring Osłonki to the west and Wolica Nowa to the north-west. The differences between those microregions are reflected mostly in the earlier appearance of feather grass (Stipa sp.) in the Smólsk area as well as the higher quantity of crop chaff remains in the Osłonki area, but their random occurrence, along with the fragmentariness of the archaeological data, must be taken into account. However, intentional introduction of feather grass by the first Neolithic settlers in eastern Kuyavia cannot be excluded. The relatively high proportion of small-grain grasses, usually interpreted as traces of fodder, together with the scarcity of crop remains at the Wolica Nowa site, suggests that the site was connected more with animal husbandry than with agriculture. On the other hand, the small-grain grasses at Smólsk are represented mainly by a large number of non-weedy grass (cf. Hierochloë type) grains from the crop sample, which cannot be explained in a simple way.
A comparison of the anthracological data from the Osłonki and Smólsk microregions reveals differences in woodland management and differences between the local environments. Pine wood was more accessible at Smólsk than at Osłonki, due to local landscape characteristics.
Czarne ziemie, w randze osobnej j ednostki, wyodrębnione zostały przez Miklaszewskiego ze względu na ich poba-giennągenezę, podmokłość oraz specyficzny typ „kwaśnej” próchnicy. Z czasem zaczęto określać tym mianem także inne podmokłe gleby z głębokim poziomem próchnicznym o różnej genezie: (1) czarne ziemie pojeziorne (pobagienne), (2) czarne ziemie błotne (z przeobrażenia gleb torfowo- i torfiastoglej owych), (3) czarne ziemie deluwialne, (4) czarne ziemie ukształtowane w procesie werty-lizacji, (5) czarne ziemie powstałe w efekcie zwiększenia wilgotności czarnoziemów łąkowo-leśnych, (6) poligenetyczne czarne ziemie z poziomem iluwiacji iłu. Klasyfikacja gleb o tak zróżnicowanej genezie musi opierać się na wspólnych kryteriach morfologicznych, to j est zgodnie z trendem wyznaczonym przez systematyki gleb Polski z lat 1989 i 2011. Jednak przynależność do czarnych ziem nie zawsze jest jednoznaczna, ze względu na nieprecyzyjne rozgraniczenie w punktach stycznych z pokrewnymi glebami, w tym z czarnoziemami (intensywność oglejenia), madami i glebami deluwialnymi (stratyfikacja materiału macierzystego i/lub poziomu mollic), vertisolami (obecność poziomów mollic i vertic) oraz glebami murszastymi (brak różnic w kryteriach diagnostycznych). Ponadto, uzupełnienia wymagają charakterystyki czarnych ziem pod kątem rodzaju oglejenia (gruntowego oraz opadowego), rodzaju węglanów (wtórnych i pierwotnych) oraz obecności poziomu diagnostycznego anthric.
Michał Dudek, Jarosław Waroszewski, Cezary Kabała and Beata Łabaz
blackearths in Poland (Geneza, właoeciwooeci i klasyfikacja czarnych ziem w Polsce). Soil Science Annual 65(2): 80–90.
Łabaz B., Kabała C., Waroszewski J., 2019. Ambient geochemical baselines for trace elements in Chernozems – approximation of geochemical soil transformation in an agricultural area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191(1): 19.
Miller W.L., Kishne A.S., Morgan C.L., 2010. Vertisol morphology, classification, and seasonal cracking patterns in the Texas Gulf coast prairie. Soil Horizons 51(1): 10–16.
Mocek A., Owczarzak W
H. Olszewska, K. Skowron, K. Skowron and A. Kaczmarek
The aim of this study was to determine under laboratory conditions the percentage and rate of reduction in invasive Ascaris suum eggs, as well as the maximal time of invasiveness retaining by them in swine slurry and 3 soil types. A. suum eggs were introduced into perforated perlon bags which then were placed in samples of slurry and in humus layers of the soils: podsolic soil, black earth and browned black earth. The experiment was carried out for 44 weeks at 4 and 20 °C. Finally, at 4 °C a reduction in the number of invasive eggs from 41 % (the humus layer of podsolic soil) to 65 % (the humus layer of black earth) was observed. At 20 °C the fluctuations were smaller and the percentage of elimination ranged from 89 % (slurry) to 96 % (the humus layer of browned black earth).
Post-bog soils developed from limnic calcareous sediments are closely related to a young-glacial landscape and postglacial lakes in Northern Poland. The studies conducted in 2010–2012 on post-bog soils near lake Dubie (Równina Drawska, NW Poland), partially used as an arable land. The goal of research was to characterise some chemical and physical properties of post-bog soils developed from carbonate deposits near lake Dubie. The soils of the analysed area developed from lacustrine chalk and calcareous gyttja belong to black earth and mucky soils. Organic matter content in surface horizons ranged from 5.0 to 14.2%, content of CaCO3 from 27.2 to 55.2%, the highest carbonate content was found in arable soil. The soils of the study area were characterised by a narrow C/N ratio, low level of total form of P and a high content of Ca. Specific density of surface horizons was in the range 2.49 to 2.58 Mg · m−3, bulk density from 0.445 to 1.212 Mg · m−3. High porosity was also found in the examined formations, from 0.826 in surface horizons and 0.700 m3 · m−3 in limnic deposits.
Victor Aulin, Oleg Lyashuk, Andrii Tykhyi, Sergiy Karpushyn and Nadia Denysiuk
On the basis of rheological characteristics, stress fields and deformations, new methods of improving the mechanism of soil cultivation are substantiated in this article. The mechanism of soil destruction is observed. Paper investigates the process of changing the stressed-deformed state of the soil under the influence of the working body. To study the viscoelastic properties of black earth soil, the method of amplitude sweeping with a measuring system of parallel high planes was applied using a modular rheometer MCR-302 (Anton Paar, Austria). Range of linear viscoelasticity of virgin soil was found to reach 0.1% deformation; range of linear viscoelasticity of cultivated field area is smaller by an order of magnitude – to 0.02% deformation. Structure destruction (the point of equality of modules) of virgin soil occurs at 20% deformation; structure of long steam soil destructs at 8% deformation. Technique of measuring the isobar zones distribution in horizontal and vertical planes by means of special strain gauges of the LPX 5000 model was developed. To reproduce the force pattern of the working bodies’ effect on soil environment, the measuring complex MIC 400D is used; stress-strain state of the soil is defined.
Bernard Gałka, Cezary Kabała, Anna Karczewska, Józef Sowiński and Justyna Jakubiec
The aim of the study was to determine whether long-term intensive cultivation that used variable ploughing and fertilisation technologies and schemes influences the differentiation of soil properties which may impact the results of growing experiments in a relatively small experimental field (0.1 ha). The field under study is located in Wrocław, in an agricultural experimental station that has been operating for more than 60 years. A transformation of rusty gleyic soils (Brunic Gleyic Arenosols) into anthropogenic black earths (Gleyic Phaeozems (Arenic)) was noticed. The content of organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and the content of exchangeable base cations in the plough layer were positively (statistically and spatially) correlated and their increased values were observed in soils with a deeper and darker plough level. The present differentiation of the physical and chemical properties of soils in the experimental field do not result from such primary soil-forming factors as a kind and texture of parent material, topography, moisture regime, or (micro-)climatic conditions, which are not differentiated within the field, but from various intensity of former cultivation on individual sections of the experimental field. The variability cśfficient of the crucial soil properties was found to exceed 30%, which might significantly influence the results of micro-plot vegetation experiments.
Zbigniew Kaczmarek, Piotr Gajewski, Andrzej Mocek, Wojciech Owczarzak and Bartłomiej Glina
The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.
Colluvial soils (in Polish: gleby deluwialne) are an important part of the soil cover in young morainic landscapes of northern Poland. They evolved as a result of the accumulation of eroded material at the foot of the slopes and bottoms of closed depressions. The aim of this study was to determine the systematic position of colluvial soils commonly found in the Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland. Ten soil pits located in different types of landscapes were selected for testing soil properties. The colluvial material is characterized by diversified properties: thickness, particle-size distribution, organic carbon content, color, pH, and base saturation. As a result, the investigated soils represent broad spectrum of typological units according to Polish Soil Classification (2011). Some of them contain epipedons mollic and meet the criteria of colluvial chernozemic soils. They were found mainly on buried black earths in areas with small slope inclinations. Many pedons contain pale colored acidic colluvial material with low base saturation and low organic carbon content and must be classified as other types: arenosols (in Polish: arenosole) or rusty soils (in Polish: gleby rdzawe). These soils occur mostly in areas with intensive relief and overlay the different soil types, including rusty soil and organic soils. They are formed as a result of soils lessivés and rusty soils truncation. An introduction of the additional units of “proper colluvial soils” which have epipedon ochric, and “rusty-colluvial soils” with endopedon sideric to the next edition of Polish Soil Classification would enable a more precise expression of the genesis of these soils in the type rank. Moreover, the definition of chernozemic colluvial soils could be extended to colluvial soils with umbric horizon. Classifying soils derived from colluvial material as soils of other types leads to the disappearance of this units on maps and underestimation of the impact of denudation on the soil cover.