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Pharmacotherapy prescribing patterns in the treatment of bipolar disorder in a South African outpatient population

Introduction Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterised by manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes ( Frye 2011 ). Pharmacological treatment is crucial. Such treatment is aimed for acute exacerbation of a manic, hypomanic or depressive episode, preventing relapses and recurrences and improving inter-episode functioning (remission/recovery) ( Jarema et al. 2005 ). The medications used to treat this disorder include mood stabilisers (lithium and anticonvulsants), antipsychotics (typical and atypical), antidepressants, hypnotics and anxiolytics

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Brief communication (Original). Long-term aripiprazole effectiveness in bipolar disorder patients decreases with pharmacotherapeutic complexity and degree of baseline mood disturbance

References 1. Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64:543-52. 2. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2001 - Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Geneva, Switzerland.: World Helath Organization; 2001. 3. Ketter TA. Handbook of diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric

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A Comparative Study of Affective Bipolar Disorder with Schizoaffective Disorder from a Longitudinal Perspective

References 1. Maier W, Zobel A, Wagner M. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Differences and Overlaps. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006;19(2):165-170. 2. Korn ML. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Evolving Interface. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health. 2004;9(2) 3. Lake CR, Hurwitz N. Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease - there is no schizoaffective disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007;20(4):365-79. 4. Harrow M, et al. Ten-year outcome:patients with

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Signs of Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorders among Patients with Bipolar Disorder

, prevalence and impact of bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry, 2010;71(6):e14. 15. Geddes JR, Miklowitz DJ. Treatment of bipolar disorder. Lancet, 2013;381:1672-1682. 16. Woods, SW. The economic burden of bipolar disease. J Clin Psychiatry, 2000;13,38-41. 17. Matevosyan NR. Oral health of adults with serious mental illness: a review. Community Ment Health J, 2010;46:553-562. 18. Lavigne GJ, Kato T, Kolta A, Sessle BJ. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2003

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Review paper. Does genius border on insanity? Part I: A relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms in bipolar disorder

-148. 23. Runco M. Creativity. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2004; 55:657-87. 24. Akiskal H.S, Akiskal K. Re-assessing the prevalence of bipolar disorders: clinical significance and artistic creativity. Psychiatry Psychobiol. 3 European Psychiatry. 1988. 25. Richards, Ruth, Kinney, Dennis K, Lunde, Inge, Benet, Maria, Merzel, Ann P.C. Creativity in manic-depressives, cyclothymes, their normal relatives, and control subjects. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 1988; 97 (3): 281-288. 26. Sass L.A. Schizophrenia, Modernism, and the "Creative

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A systematic review on the effect of Ramadan on mental health: minor effects and no harm in general, but increased risk of relapse in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

opening times, meal and prayer times ( Bahammam 2006 ). Sleep has been shown to be affected in many psychiatric disorders: Patients with depression often suffer interrupted sleep and sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods. Poor sleep may be an early sign or a trigger of depression and manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Sleep deprivation has been used as a therapy for severe depressive disorders. During manic episodes, the need for sleep is known to be reduced. Temporary sleep changes have been observed during Ramadan ( Leiper et al 2008 ). Most of the effects of

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Bipolar Disorder in Statehood: is China “Dr. Jekyll” or “Mr. Hyde” or Both?

:// American Psychiatric Association (APA), Steering Committee on Practice Guidelines. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorder (April, 2002; 2 nd edition November, 2005). Web. Amnesty International. Annual Report, China (2013). Web. Australia Set to Block China Purchase of Iconic Cattle Ranch , AG Web and “Bloomberg News” (April, 2016). Web. http

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Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

disorder: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Berk et al. BMC Med., 10, 91, 2012. 4. Berk M. et al.: The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjunctive treatment in bipolar depression: An open label trial. J. Affect. Disord., 135, 389, 2011. 5. Dell’Osso B. et al.: Superior chronic tolerability of adjunctive modafinil compared to pramipexole in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 150, 130, 2013. 6. Fan A. et al.: Allopurinol augmentation in the outpatient treatment of bipolar mania: a

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Evaluation of the Role of ABCB1gene Polymorphic Variants on Psychiatric Disorders Predisposition in Macedonian Population

caudate of elderly patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2000;93:103–110. 16. Togo T, Akiyama H, Kondo H, Ikeda K., Kato M., Iseki E, Kosaka K. Expression of CD40 in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological diseases. Brain Res. 2000; 885:117–121. 17. Padmos RC, Hillegers M H, Knijff EM, Vonk R., Bouvy A., Staal FJ, de RidderD, KupkaRW, Nolen WA, DrexhageHA. A discriminating messenger RNA signature for bipolar disorder formed by an aberrant expression of inflammatory genes in monocytes. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2008; 65:395–407. 18

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Common Variants in BCL9 Gene and Schizophrenia in a Japanese Population: Association Study, Meta-Analysis and Cognitive Function Analysis / UOBIČAJENE VARIJANTE BCL9 GENA I ŠIZOFRENIJA U JAPANSKOJ POPULACIJI: ŠTUDIJA POVEZANOSTI, METAANALIZA I ANALIZA KOGNITIVNIH FUNKCIJA

genetics of schizophrenia. PLoS Med 2005; 2: e212. 6. Lichtenstein P, Yip BH, Bjork C, Pawitan Y, Cannon TD, Sullivan PF, et al. Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population- based study. Lancet 2009; 373: 234-9. 7. Stefansson H, Ophoff RA, Steinberg S, Andreassen OA, Cichon S, Rujescu D, et al. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. Nature 2009; 460: 744-7. 8. Shi J, Levinson DF, Duan J, Sanders AR, Zheng Y, Pe’er I, et al. Common variants on chromosome 6p22

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