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bacteria biotyping ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). Bacterial typing by MS is based on the fingerprinting of bacteria ribosomal proteins profiles using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry (MS) through interrogation of a database of reference profiles ( 5 , 6 ). The technology was shown to be highly efficient after several inter-laboratory cross-validation( 7 ) and MALDI MS biotyping has become a conventional method for hospital routine biotyping due to its speed, simple handling, cost-effectiveness and high-throughput capabilities( 8 ). The U


The genetic structure of crucian carps colonies in Ukrainian water bodies was defined by gene marking. The sexual structure and ploidy were investigated, the duration of spawners maturation, life-span, rate of growth and the linear growth of independent species and biotypes were defined. The comparative biological analysis showed that virtually all the researched crucian carps had low linear growth index and early maturation terms. Th e hybrid individuals of C. auratus-C. carassius during the first years of life were characterized by the high rate of growth which was most likely determined by the “hybrid power” which is kept by this biotype only within the starting phase of existence, after which the active growth is significantly reduced. Th e individual biological peculiarities of peculiar species and biotypes of crucian carps do not depend on their genetic nature but in most cases are defined by the external living conditions.

References 1. Alrawi, A. M. et al.: Biotypes and serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae ocular isolates. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 86, 3, 2002. 2. Barbe G. et al.: Evaluation of API NH, a new 2-hour system for identification of Neisseria and Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis in a routine clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1, 32, 1994. 3. Betriu C. et al..: Peritonitis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37, 9, 1999. 4. Bogaert D. et al.: Variability and diversity of

compliance, [ 4 ] and hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid. [ 5 ] However, the evidence is scarce for other factors, particularly the impact biotype, [ 6 ] smoking, [ 7 ] diabetes mellitus (DM), [ 8 ] and previous treatment failure. In particular, it is unknown whether the body mass index (BMI) influences in a clinically significant way the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of the drugs involved in eradication (in particular, the proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics). Furthermore, to date, studies are in most cases controlled in relation to the therapeutic

biotypes of Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Pathol. 1985;38:750 - 53. 32. Houang et al. Comparison of genital and respiratory carriage of Haemophilus parainfluenzae in men. J Med Microbiol . 1989;28: 119-23. 33. Martel, AY, St-Laurent G, Dansereau LA, Bergeron MG. Isolation and biochemical characterization of Haemophilus species isolated simultaneously from the oropharyngeal and anogenital areas. J Clin Microbiol . 1989;27:1486-9. 34. Taylor DC et al. Biotypes of Haemophilus parainfluenzae from the

References Bohlen, J., Rab, P., Šlechtova, V. et al. Hybridogenous biotypes in spined loaches (genus Cobitis) in Germany with implications for conservation // Conservation of freshwater fishes: options for the future / Ed. M. J. Colares // Pereira et al. - 2002. - P. 311-321. Boroń, A. Karyotypes of diploid and triploid silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) // Cytobios. -1994. - 80. - P. 117-124. Boroń, A. Cytogenetic characterization of the loaches of the genera Sabanejewia, Misgurnus and Barbatula (Pisces, Cobitidae) // Folia Zool. - 2000. - 49

on ligation of oligonucleotide adapters to restriction fragments of genomic DNA and PCR techniques, application and evaluation of their usefulness in epidemiological studies [In Polish] Available from: [Accessed 14 Jan 2018]. 5. Devriese LA. A simplified system for biotyping Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different animal species. J Appl Microbiol. 1984;56(2):215-20. 6. Miedzobrodzki J, Malachowa N, Markiewski T, Bialecka A, Kasprowicz A. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates based on phenotypical

identification of Trichoderma harzianum biotypes 2 and 4 responsible for the worldwide green mold epidemic in cultivated Agaricus bisporus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52 : 246-250. Gams W., Bissett J. 1998. Morphology and identification of Trichoderma. In: Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Basic biology, taxonomy and genetics. Vol. 1. C. P. Kubicek G. E. Harman (eds.). Taylor & Francis, London: 3-34. Maszkiewicz J. 2006. Choroby grzybowe. In: Ochrona pieczarek. (E. Dmowska S. Ignatowicz M. Lewandowski J. Maszkiewicz J. Szymański Z. Uliński, eds.). Hortpress Sp. z o


This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets) and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets) were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 %) of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 %) of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 %) of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi), B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium) and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis) were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75) from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.


The paper proposes the improvement of the current bitter cherry assortment with new creations made at Iaşi, adapted to the specific conditions from the NE area of Romania. For the improvement of the bitter cherry assortment with new, productive, disease resistant cultivars with fruits of good quality, resistant to cracking with different maturation stages, in 1981 at Fruit Growing Research Station (F.G.R.S.) Iaşi - Romania has begun an action of selection and promoting of some valuable genotypes of bitter cherry (existent in the spontaneous flora or in plantations from the Iaşi county), which were being planted with cultivars and other genotypes from all around the country. Following the positive and gradual selection there were selected three biotypes of bitter cherry from which two of them have been approved as new cultivars in 1994, with the names „Amar Maxut”, respectively, „Amar Galata” and the biotype „Amar R5.P10” has been registered in 2013 at the State Institute for Variety Testing and Registration Bucharest to be approved as a new cultivar. All three bitter cherry genotypes correspond to the objectives of the main assortment breeding. They have a high productivity because the natural fertility index registered values between 36.5-63.7%, the trees have a reduced vigour, they present a good resistance to frost (1-9% affected buds) and to diseases (values of I% anthracnose, 1.1-2.8%). The fruits are high quality and the maturation stages are at the extremities of the cherries maturation season.