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Introduction The field of biotechnology is large and could be considered tritely as simply the development of technology that is based on biology. For example, the long history of utilizing the biological processes of microorganisms to produce bread or cheese. Nonetheless, modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to fight debilitating and rare diseases, to reduce people’s environmental footprint, to provide solutions for enhancing the world’s food supply; to use less and cleaner sources of energy, and to have safer, cleaner and more

identity and multilocus phylogenetic analysis. Genome Announc. 2: e00927-14. Gonzalez-Toril E, Llobet-Brossa E, Casamayor EO, Amann R, Amils R (2003) Microbial ecology of an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 4853-4865. Jain C, Rodriguez RLM, Phillippy AM, Konstantinidis KT, Aluru S (2018) High throughput ANI analysis of 90K prokaryotic genomes reveals clear species boundaries. Nature Comm. 9: Article number: 5114. Johnson DB (2014) Biomining-biotechnologies for extracting and recovering metals from ores and waste materials. Curr

References Adelberger K.E., 1999. A developmental German state? Explaining growth in German biotechnology and venture capital. BRIE Working Paper 134. Aharonson B., Baum J., Plunket A., 2008. Inventive and uninventive clusters: The case of Canadian biotechnology. Research Policy 37(6-7): 1108-1131. Bauer M., 1995. Resistance to new technology and its effects on nuclear power, information technology and biotechnology. In: Bauer M. (ed.), Resistance to new technology: Nuclear power, information technology and biotechnology. Cambridge University, Cambridge: 1

Abstract

For livestock holdings, the breeding sector is the most important and the level of breeding technical indicators is the path to profit or loss. It can be said that in animal husbandry, this is the sector with the highest degree of technicality and that is why there were made efforts in research to create modern techniques that allow the man to control all these phenomena and the level of indicators to not depend only on the capabilities of the bull, boar, ram and rooster, etc.

The aim of this paper is to provide a view upon the use of breeding biotechnologies in Romanian livestock. Based on the data of National Agency for Improvement and Reproduction in Animal Husbandry were analyzed the dynamics of artificial insemination, in species of livestock contained in Official Control of Production (COP). The dynamics of embryo transfer in cattle, in Romania, in the period 2000-2012 is based on data reported by the Romanian Association of Embryo Transfer (A.R.E.T.) to the European Association of Embryo Transfer (A.E.T.E.).

Although until 1990 agricultural research and the system of state enterprises favored the application of these biotechnologies, after 1990, the highly divided property in agriculture and the lack of organization of farmers in associative forms resulted in the restricted use of these modern techniques.

Regarding the use A.I., in the analyzed period, the total number of A.I. decreased by 55%, due to the changes that have occurred since 1990, with the restructuring that occurred in livestock (reducing the number of large farms and the continue decline of the number of females) and in the national network of breeding and selection of animals.

In Romania, due to high costs, embryo transfer is not a method currently used and accessible to ordinary farmers, being used mostly to obtain the bulls used in artificial insemination network or the cows as steers mothers.

–42. 11. Ereky, K., (1919). “Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett-, und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe: für naturwissenschaftlich gebildete Landwirte verfasst”, Berlin: P. Parey. 12. Ernst & Young, (2013). “Beyond borders: global biotechnology report 2013”. Beyond borders, No.27. 13. Essendorfer, S., Diaz-Rainey, I. & Falta, M., (2015). “Creative destruction in Wall Street’s technological arms race: Evidence from patent dataNo Title”. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 14. Fári, M.G. & Kralovánszky, U.P., (2006). “The founding father of

Introduction A European Workshop on “Smart Specializations Strategy in the Field of Biotechnologies in Europe: A Challenge for Central and East European Countries (CEE)” was organized from September 4 th to September 6 th 2017 in Bratislava (Slovak Republic) by Faculty of Natural Sciences of University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava in cooperation with Slovak Academy of Sciences and International Centre for Applied Research and Sustainable Technology, Bratislava with the funding and expertise support of the Joint Research Centre of European Commission

Introduction Over time, we learn about newer and newer possibilities of the human body. We deal with very detailed aspects of it, often forgetting the bigger picture that is taking into account matters that may seem obvious to scientists. Let us see then, how the recent oral research - taking into account its widely reaching biology and biotechnology aspects - has been taking place over recent years. The specificity of the oral cavity is quite unique considering the close relationship with the external environment it represents. It is also worth mentioning that

wasted ( 4 ). Biotechnology can play an important role in addressing many of the issues associated with these challenges. Conventional crop technology, when allied to biotechnology can address these matters. Increased crop productivity, including the use of genetically modified and other forms of biotechnology crops, leads to more affordable food through reduced production costs, less pesticide spraying, decreased soil damage, fuel use and carbon dioxide release through reduced ploughing. Farm income gains through the use of biotechnology crops for 1996-2014 reached

Cell Research 50: 151-158. DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(68)90403-5. Gantait, S., Kundu, S., Ali, N., Sahu, N.C., 2015. Synthetic seed production of medicinal plants: a review on influence of explants, encapsulation agent and matrix. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37: 98. DOI: 10.1007/s11738-015-1847-2. Gilani S.A., Kikuchi A., Watanabe K.N. 2009. Genetic variation within and among fragmented populations of endangered medicinal plant, Withania coagulans (Solanaceae) from Pakistan and its implications for conservation. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 2948-2958. DOI: 10

References 1. Adenle A. A., 2011 ‒ Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe? BMC Research Notes, 4, 388. 2. Al-Salameen F., Kumar V., Al-Aqeel H., Al-Hashash H. and Hejji A. B., 2012 ‒ Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait, GM Crops Food, 3, 4, 283-288. 3. Anderson K., 2010 ‒ Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade, New Biotechnology, 27, 558-564. 4. Bhawsar S. and Cameotra S. S., 2011 ‒ Biodegradation of diesel fuel, Transylvanian Review of Systematical and