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REFERENCES CZUBIŃSKI T. 2011. Stymulatory, aktywatory…, O co w tym chodzi?. Top Agrar Polska 4: 140-143, GRZYŚ E. 2012. Wpływ wybranych substancji biologicznie czynnych na kukurydzę uprawianą w warunkach stresu. UWP Wrocław, Monografie CXLV. IBRAGIMOVA A.S., BASYGARAYEV Z.M., KERIMKULOVA A.R., BUKENOVA E.A., GILMANOV M.K. 2008. The new effective biostimulator for agroecological engineering. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering Vol. 2 (8): 171-175. JANKOWSKI K., DUBIS B. 2008. Biostymulatory w

 Horticulturae vol. 21 (1), pp. 39–48. CAMBRI, D, FILIPPINO, L, APONE, F, ARCIELLO, S, COLUCCI, G, PORTOSO, D 2008, ‘Effect of amino plant on expression of selected genes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Plants’, Monographs series: Biostimulators in Modern Agriculture General aspect. Wieś Jutra, pp. 77–82. CHEN, YX, HE, YF, LUO, YM, YU, YL, LIN, Q, WONG, MH 2003, ‘Physiological mechanism of plant roots exposed to cadmium’, Chemosphere vol. 50 (6), pp. 789–793. DHARGALKAR, VK, PEREIRA, N 2005, ‘Seaweed: promising plant of the millennium’, Science and Culture vol. 71 (3–4), pp. 60

The Influence of Grafting and Biostimulators on the Yield and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Tomato CV. (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Grown in the Field

Four tomato cultivars Macarena F1, Faustine F1, Cathy F1 and Fanny F1 were used in the study. Seeds were sown at the end of March and transplants were grown in a greenhouse. The plants were grafted on Maxifort F1 rootstock on April 5, 6 and 21 in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 respectively without the use of biostimulators. In the case of the other combinations each year the following treatments with biostimulators were performed: watering with Goteo 0.1% solution (twice - 4 and 2 weeks before planting and three times after planting at three-week intervals), spraying with BM 86 0.1% solution (four times every three weeks starting at the blooming of first cluster). In the control combination plants were neither-nor grafted or treated with biostimulators. Plants were planted in the field at 70×100 cm spacing - 20 plants per plot. For the ripe fruits analyses the following parameters were determined: dry matter, total sugars, vitamin C, carotenoids and macroelements: N, P, K, Ca.

A higher total and marketable yield was obtained after grafting and Goteo treatments. There was a significant influence of grafting and the application of the biostimulators on the content of dry matter and total sugars, however, the highest content of vitamin C and carotenoids were obtained in the control. There was a slight increase of the content of nitrates and calcium in the fruit in the case of grafting and Goteo biostimulator watering treatments, whereas the highest content of potassium in the fruit was obtained in plants treated with BM 86 and phosphorus in the fruits from control combination plants.

, middle and outer zones, vitality, health, intensity of biotic activity, complexity of organic ring formations between the middle and outer zone and at the matter or mineralization degree. Discussions The results of the greenhouse experiments carried out demonstrated that natural fertilizers and biostimulators coupled with improved aeration conditions in the soil by dilluting oil-polluted soil with perlite stimulated microbial activity plant growth, yields and resistence to pathogens. Our results are in concordance with data from literature ( 8 ) that reported growth

REFERENCES A gulló -A ntón M.A., S ánchez -B ravo J., 2011. Auxins or sugars: What makes the difference in the adventitious rooting of stored carnation cuttings? J. Plant Growth Regul. 30: 100-113. B asak A., 2013. Biostymulator czy już nawóz? [Biostimulator is already fertilizer?] MPS Sad 5: 83-85. B orowski E., 2009. Response to chilling in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with triacontanol and Asahi SL. Acta Agrobot. 62: 165-172. C osta J.M., H euvelink E., P ol P.A., P ut H.M.C., 2007. Anatomy and morphology of rooting in leafy rose stem

–124. Hardy G.E.St.J. 1999. Phosphite and its potential to control P. cinnamomi in natural plant communities and adjacent rehabilitated mine sites in Western Australia. In: First International Meeting on Phytophthoras in Forest and Wildland Ecosystems – Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees, IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09, August 30 – September 3, 1999, Grants Pass, Oregon USA, 82–86. Hoang T.B.T., Takeo Y. 2009. Phosphite (phosphorous acid): Fungicide, fertilizer or biostimulator? Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 55, 228–234. Jung T. 2008. Widespread Phytophthora

Abstract

Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.) Olson). The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C) and relative air humidity was low (35-50%). In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones) Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium) or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan) gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate) exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

with the aging process, significantly extending the life of bees. Therefore that the effect of caffeine can be assumed to be bidirectional. It inhibits the development of Nosema spp. on the one hand and intensifies or regulates biochemical processes on the other ( Strachecka et al., 2014 ). Curcumin turned out to be an unexpectedly effective natural biostimulator. Already at a dose of 3 μg/ml (an equivalent dose for humans), it improved the condition and vitality of bees, which in turn had a longer lifespan ( Strachecka et al., 2015 ). New threats from pesticides

References Biesaga-Košcielniak, J., Filek, M. (2010). Occurrence and Physiology of Zearalenone as a New Plant Hormone. Soc. Org. Farm. Climate Change Soil Sci.: Sust. Agric. Rev. , 3 , 419-435. Budzyński, W., Dubis, B., Jankowski, K. (2008). Response of winter oilseed rape to the biostimulator Asahi SL aplied in spring. In: Biostimulators in Modern Agriculture; Field Crops (pp. 18-24). Dabrowski, Z.T. (ed.). Warshaw: Wieš Jutra. Krawczyk, R., Skoczyński, J. (2008). Winter survival and yield of oilseed rape depending on sowing date and application of

Abstract

Titanium is one of a plant biostimulators. It stimulates life processes, growth and development, as well as affects physiological and biochemical pathways, often increasing biomass production and enhancing yield. An open field experiment was conducted in the years 2011-2013 in Polanowice, Poland to investigate the effects of titanium foliar fertilization on the growth of timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). This single-factor, randomized block design study was performed in four replicates on research plots with the area of 10 m2 each. The substrate was black loess soil (chernozem) typical for top class farmland. Titanium fertilization via leaf spray was performed with a water solution of Tytanit® at three doses of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 dm3 · ha−1. Foliar fertilization with the highest dose of Tytanit® significantly increased seed yield, thousand grain weight and germination capacity. Moreover, the middle dose of Tytanit® (0.4 dm3 · ha−1) was enough to observe a positive effect on the sample.