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The paper presents an attempt to apply measurable traits of a tree – crown projection area, crown length, diameter at breast height and tree height for classification of 135-year-old oak (Quercus L.) trees into Kraft classes. Statistical multivariate analysis was applied to reach the aim. Empirical material was collected on sample plot area of 0.75 ha, located in 135-year-old oak stand. Analysis of dimensional traits of oaks from 135-year-old stand allows quite certain classification of trees into three groups: pre-dominant, dominant and co-dominant and dominated ones. This seems to be quite promising, providing a tool for the approximation of the biosocial position of tree with no need for assessment in forest. Applied analyses do not allow distinguishing trees belonging to II and III Kraft classes. Unless the eye-estimation-based classification is completed, principal component analysis (PCA) method provided simple, provisional solution for grouping trees from 135-year-old stand into three over-mentioned groups. Discriminant analysis gives more precise results compared with PCA. In the analysed stand, the most important traits for the evaluation of biosocial position were diameter at breast height, crown projection area and height.


The study presents the results of an analysis of the pine tree growth increments (height increment, dbh increment, basal area increment and volume increment) for a 5-year period. The study involved Scots pine trees of Kraft’s class 1, 2 and 3 (dominant stand) in stands of different age classes (II, III, V) growing in fresh mixed coniferous (BMśw) and fresh coniferous (Bśw) forest habitats. The multivariate analysis of variance was performed to assess the statistical significance of age and dominance of trees within a stand on their increment. The dominance position was classified for each tree using Kraft’s criteria. The following characteristic were also measured: dbh of the trunk in two directions (N-S and W-E), and crown projection area on the basis of the characteristic tree crown points, projected using of a crown projector, characteristic points in tree crowns (7 to 14 on average). The actual height was determined after trees were felled. The following measurements of the single tree growing space were selected and determined: crown projection area - pk (m2), crown diameter - dk (m), Seebach’s growth space number - dk / d1.3, crown projection area to basal area ratio d 2 k / d 2 1.3, crown deflection coefficient dk / h, single tree space ppd = pk·h (m3). We assessed the strength of the relationships between tree growth parameters and tree growth space, crown length, relative crown length and slenderness. Both the age and dominance position of trees within the stand affected the growth increments. The strongest correlation among measured traits was between the 5-year volume increment and decreasing slenderness.

zależności od wieku oraz typu siedliskowego lasu na przykładzie modrzewia (Larix decidua Mill.). Sylwan 154(11): 764-772. Kaźmierczak K., Stosik M. 2008. Analiza wybranych cech przestrzeni wzrostu pojedynczego drzewa na przykładzie 135-letniego drzewostanu dębowego. Sylwan 152(2): 3-9. Kaźmierczak K., Zawieja B. 2016. Tree crown size a measure of tree biosocial position in 135-year-old oak (Quercus L.) stand. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A 58(1): 31-42. DOI 10.1515/ffp-2016-0004. de Kort I., Baas P. 1997. Ring width patterns of Douglas fir in relation to crown vitality