Plum seedlings are extensively used as rootstocks for stone fruits except P. cerasus. Genetic diversity in seedlings used for rootstocks might result in variation of scion performance and subsequently non-uniform orchards. This study aimed on investigating variation among several Iranian plum genotypes sampled from seedlings grown for grafting. Thirty-five 3- to 4-year-old seedlings were characterized using 28 quantitative and qualitative traits, as well as 22 RAPD markers. Results of the morphological study revealed remarkable variability in studied traits. Genotypes were separated into three different groups according to their height using cluster analysis performed by Ward’s clustering method based on morphological data. Twenty two RAPD primers from 120 screened produced 195 polymorphic reproducible bands (86.75% polymorphism). According to the similarity matrix, the lowest similarity was obtained between the genotype Tansgol (control) and S4-13 and the highest similarity between S11-25 and S11-26. According to the cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients and the UPGMA method at a similarity level of 0.56, the genotypes were divided into six sub-clusters. Significant association between eight morphological traits with RAPD markers was found by marker association analysis done using multiple linear regressions. The application of the methodology in screening elite genotypes is discussed.
The diversity of solitary bees varies depending on the vegetation, nesting habitats, and nesting fragmentation. The agriculture development in the Suez Canal region is receiving a great deal of attention in Egypt, thus, the diversity of solitary bees are essential for high quality production of seeds, vegetables, and fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of solitary bee populations around the Canal region. About 900 - 1000 specimens of bees were collected from different locations of the Ismailia, Suez, and Sinai Governorates. Fifty-five species of bees were identified. With the exception of Melittidae family, all the bee families were present in the Canal region. The total number of species for each family were 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 species for Andrenidae, Colletidae, Apidae, Halictidae, and Megachilidae, respectively. Lasioglossum mandibularie (Morawitz, 1866) is a newly recorded species collected from Egypt. In the Suez Canal region, the most abundant species found with large populations were Andrena ovatula ssp. ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Ceratina tarsata Morawitz, 1872, and Colletes lacunatus Dours, 1872.
Agata Karło, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Maciej Pilarczyk and Joanna Surmacz-Górska
Eutrophication process is a serious problem in water ecosystems. There is a great need to study the relation between the physico-chemical condition of water and the influence of these parameters on the diversity of biological life, especially on changes in the structure of microbiocenoses. The most interesting are bacteria and microalgae, due to the important roles they play in maintaining the balance of the aquatic environment. In this study, biodiversity analysis of eukaryotic microalgae and bacteria in two artificial water ecosystems - fish farming ponds - was performed. Aquaculture was based on IMTA technology, in which every part of the trophic chain plays a significant role in maintaining the balance in the ecosystems. Experimental intensive - extensive systems differed in terms of nutrient loads, ponds were characterized by high loads of organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. During the experimental period, the physicochemical conditions, quantitative genotypic structure of the two biocenoses being studied and the relation between these factors were monitored and investigated. For the biodiversity analysis, the PCR - DGGE technique was used. The results of preliminary research showed that there is a correlation between nutrient loads, diversity expressed in the Shannon-Wiener Index and the overall condition of experimental systems. Higher loadings of nutrient promote the development of bacteria and microalgae without any influence on the balance in the artificial ecosystem being tested.
Contemporary research concerning the benefits (services) of the ecosystems (environment) confirm the rank and significance of the natural environment and its resources for shaping humanity's well-being. Particularly highlighted is the need to protection of live natural resources to preserve biodiversity, which is essential for retaining the basic ecological processes and providing the sustainability of usage of these resources. Consequently, protection of biodiversity is not only an environmental issue, but also an economic and social issue involving the well-being and quality of life of society. Thus, biological diversity is an essential condition for providing ecological safety, retaining the continuity of natural processes, and conditions the quality of life and economic potential.
The main purpose of the paper is to indicate the theoretical bases of biodiversity protection from the perspective of the natural and economic sciences, and to describe the diversity of biodiversity protection levels in the EU states. A specific aim is to indicate the forms and instruments of nature conservation involved in biodiversity protection, and to carry out an overview of established nature conservation programmes in selected EU countries. In order to accomplish such a complex aim, this article presents an overview of literature found in the natural, economic and legal sciences and popular magazines presenting scientific research within the field of biodiversity. Then a comparative analysis is presented based on the statistical data coming from various international statistics resources (OECD, EUROSTAT, EEA).
The “Land of the Valleys” lying in the area of the Lutowiska district in the Western Bieszczady Mts. is undergoing unwelcome succession-related changes, such as for example the extinction of valuable plant species or even whole plant associations, and the disappearance of the mosaic pattern of biocoenoses. It is therefore necessary to conduct investigations aimed at assessing the natural values of this region.
The natural assets of the Lutowiska district, where the three raised peat bogs under study (Wołosate, Litmirz and Tarnawa) are situated, were assessed using the Oświt  method for the natural valuation of wetlands and associated landscapes. The method involves awarding points to three groups of indicators: (i) the scope and forms of nature conservation; (ii) general natural values; and (iii) the richness of wetland biotopes, plant communities and flora [Oświt and Dembek 1995]. Altogether, the district scored 60.7 valuation points (with 9 points for relief richness included), which allows classifying it as an area with very high natural values (class VIII on a scale of I-X).
Biodiversity of fungi colonising aboveground parts of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. var. giromontina)
Zucchini is a very valuable vegetable, easy to grow both in the field and under covering, but it is affected by pathogenic fungi. The experiment was carried out at a farm near Lublin where three zucchini cultivars, ‘Astra Polka’, ‘Atena Polka F1’ and ‘Soraya’, were cultivated in a plastic tunnel and in the field in 2008-2009. The leaves, petioles and stems of zucchini were collected for laboratory tests. Mycological analysis showed that the predominating fungi were Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Fusarium spp. were isolated in the greatest numbers from zucchini plants cultivated in the field. R. solani was isolated in greater numbers from zucchini cultivated in a plastic tunnel as compared to the field.
In recent years, a number of studies have shown a close relationship between broiler performance, health and the gastrointestinal microbiota. However, taking the complexity and biodiversity of the micro-ecosystem into consideration, a manipulation of the microbiota in a way that is profitable both for the host bird and for the farmer seems a difficult goal to achieve. Bacteriocins are extracellular proteinaceous compounds, synthesized by many bacterial species. Due to their different bacteriostatic effects, they have been used in human nutrition for decades. However, limited information is available regarding their effects in poultry, even though that similar mode of action as in other animals is possible. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to discuss present bacteriocin classification, mode of action and their potential role in poultry nutrition.
High mountain streams, flowing above the upper forest line, arise from the meltwater of glaciers, permanent snow fields and high mountain lake-outlet streams and temporary springs
Larvae of Diamesa (Chironomidae, Diptera), mainly Diamesa steinboecki group, Diamesa latitarsi group dominate among macroinvertebrates developing in these streams. Other fauna groups, like Ephemeroptera do not occur or are represented by single individuals of Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Biodiversity is here very small, 2-10 taxons, density very low, below 1500 individuals/m2. In lower parts of these streams macroinvertebrate communities differentiate depending on hydrological conditions. In high mountain lake-outlet streams Simuliidae (Diptera) dominates. Inflow strong springs to high mountain stream (in the Tatra Mts. at the upper forest boundary) changing the composition, structure, and abundance of community and mayflies Baetis and Rhithrogena, and Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae) dominate. It should be mentioned, however, that streams flowing out of springs are sometimes met also at high altitude up to 3000 m a.s.l. Their fauna differs from that of high mountain streams. Larvae of Diamesa latitarsis group dominate here as well, but there are also numerous larvae of Orthocladiinae and some Trichoptera and Plecoptera but Ephemeroptera do not occur. Biodiversity is here much higher (15-30 taxons) and density above 2500 individuals/m2.
Dissimilarity of macroinvertebrates in high mountain streams led to their separation from classical zone system of running waters crenon→rhithron→potamon and to formation of new zone kryon.
The impact of the phosphogips heap on meiobenthos assemblages (Pomerania, Poland)
The aim of research was to evaluate the influence of the phosphogips heap, production waste of fertilizer of Gdańsk Fertilizer Phosphorous Factory (GZNF) in Wiślinka, on the surrounding water environment, while the examination was carried out on three levels: the influence of the heap on basic water physical and chemical parameters, on bio-diversity of meiobenthos, as well as on Copepoda-Cyclopoida species content. Physical and chemical parameters of water samples (conductivity, salinity, TDS, NO3, PO4) have a relatively high value near a heap. As a result of analysis carried out, an essential dependence is confirmed between the density of homing meiobenthos, taxonomic differentiation of meiobenthos and the distance from the dumping ground of phosphogips. Cyclopoida analysis allowed confirming the occurrence of 18 species in the whole material. The poorest species content was stated for the region of the influence of phosphogips heap.
Kamila Kašovská, Łukasz Pierzchała, Edyta Sierka and Barbara Stalmachová
This paper presents the impact of salinisation on the aquatic mollusc fauna in flooded mine subsidences in the Karvina region (Czech Republic). The results of the previous research on salinity in flooded mine subsidences show that some of them contain a high content of dissolved inorganic substances (above 1000 mg·l-1). These substances can affect the vegetation and animals occurring in the water and the surrounding area. The phylum of Mollusca was selected as a model group for the fieldwork as it includes species with the proven bioindication potential.
The occurrence of aquatic mollusc species was studied at 10 sites. The sites were selected based on the content of dissolved substances (the salinity gradient from <500 to >1000 mg·l-1. A total of 12 aquatic mollusc species were found, including one species identified as a potential bioindicator of the negative effect of salinisation on aquatic biota.
The analysis showed statistically significant positive correlations between the content of dissolved inorganic substances and the presence of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (J.E. Gray, 1843). The gradient of salinity significantly affects the species composition of the mollusc fauna in flooded mine subsidences and may affect the biodiversity of this group.