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, Postma DS et al. Sputum inflammation predicts exacerbations after cessation of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. Respir Med . 2011;105:1853-1860. 10. Agusti A, Sin DD. Biomarkers in COPD. Clin Chest Med . 2014;35:131-141. 11. Koutsokera A, Kostikas K, Nicod LP, Fitting JW. Pulmonary biomarkers in COPD exacerbations: a systematic review. Respir Res . 2013;14:111. 12. Barnes P, Chowdhury B, Kharitonov S, et al. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2006;174(1):6-14. 13. Sethi S, Muscarella K, Evans N, Klingman KL

frequent invasive or non-invasive procedures. A biomarker is defined as a “cellular, biochemical or molecular alteration in cells, tissues or fluids that can be measured and evaluated to indicate normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention.[ 8 ] The serum creatinine is a poor marker of early renal dysfunction, because the serum concentration is greatly influenced by numerous non-renal factors (such as body weight, race, age, gender, total body volume, drugs, muscle metabolism, and protein intake).[ 9

References 1. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JGF, Coats AJS, et al. - 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(27):2129-2200 2. Morrow DA, de Lemos JA. Benchmarks for the assessment of cardiovascular biomarkers. Circulation. 2007;115(8):949–952 3. Correale M

synovial fluid in an equine model of arthritis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2016, 182, 74–78. 4. Clegg P.D., Coughlan A.R., Riggs C.M., Carter S.D.: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in equine synovial fluids. Equine Vet J 1997, 29, 343–348. 5. de Bakker E., Stroobants V., VanDael F., Ryssen B.V., Meyer E.: Canine synovial fluid biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of osteoarthritis. Vet Rec 2017, 180, 328–329. 6. de Grauw J.C., van de Lest C.H.A., van Weeren P.R.: Inflammatory mediators and cartilage biomarkers in synovial fluid after a single inflammatory insult

REFERENCES 1. Maisel A, Mueller C, Nowak R, et al. Mid-region pro-hormone markers for diagnosis and prognosis in acute dyspnea: results from the BACH (Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2010;55:2062-2076. 2. Januzzi JL Jr, Rehman SU, Mohammed AA, et al. Use of amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide to guide outpatient therapy of patients with chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2011;58:1881-1889. 3. Ndumele CE, Matsushita K, Sang Y, et al. N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Heart Failure

Introduction From relatively benign conditions like acute respiratory infections to severe diseases, the need for specific biomarkers increases. [ 1 ] Cystic fibrosis is a disease with various manifestations, from lung disease to liver disease, with different evolution and limited response to available therapies.[ 2 ] Biomarkers are quantifiable indicators, which could define the relation with a disease or a physiological status, being capable of supporting the diagnostic or a predictive assessment of a certain pathology. Accessibility, sensitivity, and

Alzheimer’s disease treated with bapineuzumab: a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending- dose study. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Apr; 9(4):363-72. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70043-0. 7. Karran E, Hardy J. Antiamyloid therapy for Alzheimer’s disease - are we on the right road? N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 23; 370(4):377-8. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1313943. 8. Bier JC. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease: concepts and clinical case. Rev Med Brux. 2013 Sep. 34(4):306-10. 9. McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR Jr, Kawas CH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to

. (1989). Glutathione deficiency in the epithelial lining fluid of the lower respiratory tract in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Amer. Rev. Respir. Dis., 139 (2), 370-372. Castillo, R. L., Carrasco, R. A., Álvarez, P. I., Ruiz, M., Luchsinger, V., Zunino, E., Martínez, M. A., Avendaño, L. F. (2013). Relationship between severity of adult community acquired pneumonia and impairment of the antioxidant defense system. Biol. Res., 46 (2), 207-213. Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., Giustarini, D., Milzani, A. (2006). Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease

REFERENCES 1. Vasan RS. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: molecular basis and practical considerations. Circulation. 2006; 113: 2335–62 2. Biomarkers Definitions Working Group. Bio-markers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2001; 69: 89–95 3. Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA. 2007; 298(17): 2038–47 4. Goodsaid FM, Blank M, Dieterle F et al. Novel biomarkers of acute kidney toxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 86(5): 490–6. 5

Surfactant Protein D Plasma Levels are Associated with Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients. J Pulmon Resp Med 2013;3:138. 4. Determann RM, Royakkers AA, Haitsma JJ, Zhang H, Slutsky AS, Ranieri VM. Plasma levels of surfactant protein D and KL-6 for evaluation of lung injury in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. BMC Pulm Med 2010;10:6. 5. Kuzovlev A, Moroz V, Goloubev A, Polovnikov S. Biomarkers for early stage of acute respiratory distress syndrome in septic patients: Surfactant protein D and Clara cell protein. Crit Care 2013;17(Suppl 2):P