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Lipid parameters along with the biological markers of myocardial necrosis play an essential role in highlighting the patient at an increased risk of developing the no-reflow phenomenon from an STEMI. This phenomenon is due to primary PCI failure of blood flow in the coronary microcirculation, although the artery involved in the infarction is disintegrated.

Intern Med. 2002;137:49-51. Mijakoski D. Biological markers of viral infection in settings of occupational exposure to hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus in laboratory workers (specialization thesis). Skopje: University "St. Cyril and Methodius", Medical Faculty, 2008. Center for Disease Control. Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus to Patients During Exposure-Prone Invasive Procedures. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1991; 40 (RR08): 1-9. Available at: http


Our current clinical doctrine and practice is based upon a classification of diabetes which relies mainly on some clinical manifestations/criteria, rather than markers of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. An improved classification based on such biological markers (i.e. of insulin resistance, beta cell dysfunction, autoimmunity) may assist in clinical decision and may offer the opportunity of an optimized therapeutic strategy. We address here some important questions that have not yet been clarified, e.g. which markers/indicators best define the main pathogenic mechanisms of the disease in a patient with diabetes and what threshold values are relevant for this purpose.


Aim: The aims of the study were: 1. revealing the new indicator(s) in internal organization of sleep in psychotic states; 2. constitution of new neurophysiologic and statistical models of sleep perturbation in psychotic states and/or altered states of consciousness based on experimental data. 3. Introduction of new sleep marker as biological marker for distinction of sleep organization by different psychotic states. 4. Established new hypothesis and theories in functions of sleep and dreams.

Methods: The clinical neurophysiologic test (Polysomnography - PSG) were performed on 90 drugfree patients - 60 with depression (30 patients with reactive depression F32.0, F32.1, and 30 patients with depression with psychotic future F32.3); and 30 patients with Acute schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like states F23.1, F23.2 (all according to the DSM-IV criteria). Polysomnography was used for two nights, sleep staging (according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen & Kales, 1968) and statistical analysis of 130 sleep parameters with logistic regression (discriminative analysis “step by step”). All patients were drug-free in 3 days (1st adaptation night and 2 nights sleep investigation). The bigger part of investigation was performed in “Zentrum fuer Chronomedizin“in Wuerzburg (Germany) and one part at Psychiatric Clinic in Belgrade (Serbia).

Results: 1. The results of our investigations demonstrate that the ratio between REM and NREM time in the first period of sleep (index of endogenous perturbation of sleep or IEP-P1=REM- 1/NREM-1) is statistically the most significant chronobiological marker of internal sleep organization (through maturation and in different pathological states); 2. IEP-P1 is a highly reliable indicator of the development of endogenic perturbation of sleep in depression, mania, schizophrenic and other psychotic states, and in organic brain syndromes.

Conclusion: IEP-P1 could be a new biological marker to distinction of sleep organization in different psychotic states and other states of altered consciousness. The developed statistical models could be the basis for new hypothesis and theories about functions of sleep and dreams.

Expert Panel on Cytometry of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology. Clin Lab Haematol. 1998;20:77-9. Tasevski S, Velkov S, Kostoski D. Determination of basophilic punctuated erythrocytes count as a diagnostic method for occupational saturnism. Laboratory. 2002;4:13-6. Center for the Disease Control. Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, NCEH Pub. No. 02-0716. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2003. Hu H, Rabinowitz M, Smith D. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: Conceptual paradigms


Once they reach the environment, petroleum hydrocarbons undergo various chemical, physico-chemical and biochemical transformation processes. Organic compounds which are not or are very poorly subject to these processes are thermodynamically the most stable isomers and they are called biological markers (biomarkers). This paper presents the results of the determination of organic substances in twelve samples taken in the area of the city of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Two soil samples were taken in the Banja Luka city heating plant area and ten river sediment and soil samples were taken in the upper and lower basin of the Vrbas river in the Banja Luka city area. The aim of this study was to determine the biomarkers of oil-type pollutants in contaminated samples as well as the type of organic substances in samples taken near the contaminated area. Assisted solvent extraction was used to isolate the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from all twelve samples. Fractionation of the extracts into saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed by column chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). On basis of the obtained chromatograms, biomarkers of petroleum pollutants and specific correlation parameters of organic substances in the samples were determined. The dominance of n-alkanes with odd C atoms as well as the presence of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) on chromatograms of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons showed the presence of anthropogenic organic substances of petroleum origin in the analyzed samples. Based on the obtained chromatograms, it can be concluded that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in all samples occurred.

Adverse Effects in Workers Exposed to Inorganic Lead

This paper describes a retrospective cohort study comparing 60 workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead and 60 matched controls. All subjects were assessed using data obtained from a specially designed Questionnaire for lead exposure and toxic effects assessment, physical examination, spirometry, ECG, and laboratory tests including blood lead level (BLL) and biomarkers of lead toxic effects. Muscle pain, droopiness, and work-related nasal symptoms were significantly more frequent in lead workers. The prevalence of lung symptoms was higher in lead workers than in controls, but not significantly (20 % vs. 6.6 %, respectively). Mean values of BLL and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were significantly higher in lead workers. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in lead workers was significantly lower than in controls. Abnormal of BLL, ALAD, and ALA were more frequent in lead workers, with statistical difference for BLL and ALAD. Inverse correlation was found between BLL and ALAD, and positive correlation between BLL and age, years of employment, and years of exposure. Inverse correlation was found between ALAD and age, years of employment, years of exposure, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and years of alcohol consumption. Changes in spirometry correlated inversely with BLL. A positive correlation was found between BLL and erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration, whereas it was inverse for ALAD and haemoglobin concentration. A significant difference was found for BLL and ALAD, with a very high odds ratio (14.64 and 7.23, respectively) and high relative risk (4.18 and 3.08, respectively). Our data have confirmed the association between occupational lead exposure and deviation in specific biological markers of lead effect and between the role of occupational exposure in the development of adverse effects.

melatonin and breast cancer risk: A review of the relevant literature. J Pineal Res 1999;26:65-100. Trošić I, Bušljeta I, Pavičić I, Milković-Kraus S. Nocturnal urinary melatonin levels and urine biochemistry in microwave-irradiated rats. Biologia 2009;64:798-802. Pavičić I, Trošić I. Impact of 864 MHz or 935 MHz radiofrequency microwave radiation on the basic growth parameters of V79 cell line. Acta Biol Hung 2008;59:67-76. Pavičić I. Biološki pokazatelji učinka radiofrekvencijskog mikrovalnog zračenja (935 MHz) na V79 stanice u kulturi [Biological markers of


Background: Sleep disorders are frequent symptoms described in psychiatric patients with major depression or schizophrenia. These patients also exhibit changes in the sleep architecture measured by polysomnography (PSG) during sleep. The aim of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers that would facilitate the diagnosis based on polysomnography (PSG) measurements.

Subjects and Methods: 30 patients with schizophrenia, 30 patients with major depression and 30 healthy control subjects were investigated in the present study. The mean age in the group with schizophrenia was 36.73 (SD 6.43), in the group of patients with depression 40.77 (SD 7.66), in the healthy controls group 34.40 (SD 5.70). The gender distribution was as follows: 18 male, 12 female in the group with schizophrenia; in the group of patients with depression 11 male, 19 female; in the control group 16 male and 14 female. All subjects underwent polysomnography (PSG) for a minimum time of 8 hours according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen & Kales (1968). The following polysomnographic (PSG) parameters were analyzed: sleep latency (SL), total sleep time (TST), waking time after sleep onset (WTASO), number of awakenings (NAW), slow wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement sleep (REM), rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML), first REM period (REM 1), and first NREM period (NREM 1). We tested the potential of multiple sleep variables to predict diagnosis in different groups by using linear discriminate analysis (LDA).

Results: There were significant differences in polysomnography (PSG) variables between healthy control subjects and psychiatric patients (total sleep time, sleep latency, number of awakenings, time of awakening after sleep onset, REM 1 latency, REM 1 and index of endogenous periodicity). Importantly, LDA was able to predict the correct diagnosis in 88% of all cases.

Conclusions: The presented analysis showed commonalities and differences in polysomnography (PSG) changes in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients with schizophrenia. Our results underline the potential of polysomnography (PSG) measurements to facilitate diagnostic processes.


Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess residual beta cell function at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and identify accessible laboratory markers that best estimate it. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in beta cell function 6 months after starting different therapeutical regimens. Materials and methods: Forty seven subjects were included in the study and each performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months. Metabolic and immunologic parameters were determined from fasting samples. According to the degree of metabolic decompensation, specific therapy was started: metformin, metformin plus gliclazide or insulin therapy (with/out metformin). Early and total beta cell function was evaluated by the disposition index (DI) calculated for 30 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively. Results: At diagnosis, fasting blood glucose (BG) and HbA1c varied largely (129-521 mg/dl and 5.5-14%, respectively). The DI30 and DI120 decreased with more severe glycemic decompensation. For both DI30 and DI120 significant negative correlations were found for glycemic markers (HbA1c, 2-hour BG and maximal BG amplitude) and positive correlation for 2- hour C peptide (p<0.0001 for all). HbA1c value of 7% discriminated an important decrease of DI30 and DI120. Insulin and combined therapy significantly improved DI120 at 6 months (p: 0.0062 and 0.01, respectively), while DI30 was improved only with insulin therapy (p: 0.0326). Conclusions: Beta cell function at onset correlated with HbA1c, 2-hour BG and C peptide during OGTT. Thus OGTT and HbA1c are pivotal for evaluation of beta cell function. Insulin therapy improved early and total insulin secretion at 6 months.