Ladislava Doležajová, Tatiana Gallová and Anton Lednický
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Daniel López-Plaza, Fernando Alacid, José María Muyor and Pedro Ángel López-Miñarro
The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth elite paddlers and to identify the differences between kayakers and canoeists. A total of 171 male paddlers (eighty-nine kayakers and eighty-two canoeists), aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed basic anthropometric assessments (body mass, stretch stature, sitting height, body mass index, maturity level, sum of 6 skinfolds and fat mass percentage) as well as a battery of physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, counter movement jump, sit-and-reach and 20 m multi-stage shuttle run tests). The anthropometric results revealed a significantly larger body size (stretch stature and sitting height) and body mass in the kayakers (p < 0.01) as well as a more mature biological status (p = 0.003). The physical fitness level exhibited by the kayakers was likewise significantly greater than that of the canoeists, both in the counter movement jump and estimated VO2max (p < 0.05), as well as in the overhead medicine ball throw and sit-and-reach test (p < 0.01). These findings confirm the more robust and mature profile of youth kayakers that might be associated with the superior fitness level observed and the specific requirements of this sport discipline.
Adams J. M., M. White, 2004, Biologicalaging A fundamental, biological link between socioeconomic status and health? European Journal of Public Health , 14 (3), 331-334
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Bates K. A., A. R. Harvey, M. Carruthers, R. N. Martins, 2005, Androgens, andropause and neurodegeneration: exploring the link between steroidogenesis, androgens and Alzheimer
We study size-at-age and sexual variability of morphometric characteristics of the marsh frog. According to the size of the body, males were divided into three size-age groups (juvenis, subadultus, adultus), females — into four groups (juvenis, subadultus, adultus, adultus-I). We found that the chronological age of frogs (skeletochronology) does not always correspond to their biological age (size and proportions of the body). We noted that the semi-adult males are reliably larger than females by mean values of 26 studied morphometric characters. Males and females of “adultus” group do not differ by linear body size, significant differences were found in body proportions (7 characters). For the females of “adultus-I” group, the mean values of 26 characters are significantly larger than for “adultus” males. The results of our study showed that with the age of the marsh frog, the level of exhibition, directionality and structure of morphometric sex differences changes.
Konstantinos E. Tilkeridis, Evaggelos F. Theodorou, Jannis V. Papathanasiou, Pelagia A. Chloropoulou, Grigorios A. Trypsianis, Savvas P. Tokmakidis and Konstantinos I. Kazakos
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the infl uence of systematic training in physical growth and biological maturity in prepubertal males and estimate how this affects the physical growth and skeletal maturity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 177 primary school students of the fifth and sixth grade, from schools in Alexandroupolis, participated voluntarily in our study. Questionnaires were used in order to measure physical activity levels. The subjects were subdivided into two groups; control group (prepubertal, whose physical activity was the physical education of their school and which had never participated in systematic training, n = 95) and experimental group (prepubertal, whose weekly physical activity included physical education in their schools and additionally 3-4 training units organized training in various sports clubs in the city, n = 82). The following parameters were recorded: biological age measured by determination of skeletal age; bone density measured by ultrasound methods; anthropometric and morphological features such as height, body composition, selected diameters, circumferences and skinfolds; motor ability features. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited older biological age (p = 0.033), higher bone density (p < 0.001), lower BMI and body fat (p < 0.001), better anthropometric features and higher performance throughout all motor ability tests (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that systematic physical activity has a positive effect on both the physical and biological maturity of pre-pubertal children. This effect is mainly expressed in bone strengthening as a result of the increased bone density and in improvement of the kinetic skills of pupils who participated in organized extracurricular sport-activities.
Alex S. Freitas, António J.B. Figueiredo, Andréia L. R. de Freitas, Vinícius D. Rodrigues, Alexandre A. C. da Cunha, Fernando F. Deusdará and Manuel J. Coelho e Silva
Measurements of maturity depend on the biological system considered since differences are often found in performance and body size in subjects of the same chronological age. The objective of this study was to identify associations between biological maturation, body morphology and physical performance in girls aged from 8.0 to 15.9 year-old and to verify the bone age in obese girls and compare it with chronological age. For that purpose 2040 (11.9 ± 2.3 years) school girls from Montes Claros, participated in this study. Regular anthropometric measures as height and body mass were taken. Triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac and calf skinfolds were also registered. Physical performance was assessed trough the test of a standing long jump, handgrip strength and 20 m multistage shuttle run. Maturational status, the average age at menarche and identification of PHV (maturity off set) were determined by means of the retrospective method. Girls with the BMI above the 95th percentile got their bone age evaluated through X-ray of the left hand/wrist, in accordance with the FELS method. It was possible to find an average age at menarche of 11.30 ± 0.70, while the average age at PHV was 12.17 ± 0.71 years of age. It was observed that both body composition and physical performance showed a tendency to increase with advancing age. However, when controlling the effect of maturation, despite having higher values in body composition the post-menarche girls group did not show higher levels of physical performance. In all age groups, obese girls showed mean rates of bone age higher than chronologic age (12.25 ± 2.09 and 14.09 ± 2.35, respectively, p=0.000). Chronological age should be used with caution when evaluating obese teenagers as it may underestimate biological age.
Mártha I. Krisztina, Ogodescu A, Gyergyay Réka and Burján Zsuzsa
Background: Dental age assessment is very useful in the pediatric dentist’s and orthodontist’s everyday practice. The eventual lack of correlation between dental age, skeletal maturation and chronological age can influence treatment procedures regarding mostly their application time. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between dental age based on the calcification stages of the first lower premolar (PM1i) and skeletal maturity stages using cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, C4) among Romanian individuals and to determine the clinical value of the first premolar as a growth evaluation index. Material and methods: In a sample of 30 patients (13 males, 17 females) ranging in age from 9 to 15 years (mean age 11.2 years) we examined the orthopantomography radiographs (OPT) and lateral cephalometric radiographs of each case. Results: The biological development of girls is about 1.5 years more advanced than in boys. When the Demirjian Index was at stage F, then CVS was at stage 3.4, which means that in developmental stage “F” (according to Demirjian index) premolars are indicators of the optimal time for orthodontic treatment. We found a significant correlation (R = 0.871, p <0.001) between CVM and Demirjian's index. Conclusions: The correlation shown in this study will allow clinicians to use mandibular first premolar as an adjunctive tool to assess adolescent growth spurt, combined with the evaluation of the cervical vertebrae. The results also show the usefulness of the assessment of the development of dental status as a simple diagnostic test to determine the biological age of the population
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