Marta Marszałek, Zygmunt Kowalski and Agnieszka Makara
Pig slurry is a heterogeneous mixture of faeces, urine, undigested remains of feed items and water used for flushing of animal excrement and to maintain the proper hygiene of livestock housing. It is formed on farms which use the non-bedding system of pig breeding i.e. animals are kept on the partially or fully slatted floors. According to the Polish law pig slurry is defined as a liquid natural fertilizer intended for agricultural use. The storage and application of pig slurry on arable land affect the surroundings and may create a number of serious risks related to, among others, the pollution of water-soil environment with biogenic elements, heavy metals, pathogens and pharmaceuticals. The article presents the reasons for the occurrence of excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc and antibiotics in pig slurry. The possibility of microbial and pharmaceutical contamination of water, soil and plants as well as their pollution with biogens and heavy metals as a result of improper storage and excessive spreading of pig slurry have been characterized. Moreover, methods of preventing the above-mentioned threats with reference to Polish and EU legal acts have been discussed.
Michał Łopata, Przemysław Czerniejewski, Grzegorz Wiśniewski, Robert Czerniawski and Jakub Drozdowski
The paper presents a proposal for the treatment of river water based on expanded clay (ceramsite). It is a lightweight mineral aggregate containing components relative to phosphorus adsorption (calcium, iron, manganese, aluminum). A pilot plant on a fractional technical scale was built on a nutrient rich (phosphorus up to 0.4 mg dm−3, nitrogen up to 10.0 mg dm−3), small (mean annual flow about 0.04 m3 s−1), natural watercourse (Młynówka River, a tributary of the Otok Channel, Noteć basin, the municipality of Strzelce Krajeńskie). The monitoring included quantitative and qualitative measurements of the water stream in 2014-2015. On the basis of the examinations, the calculated effectiveness of ceramsite filters in removing major contaminants from water was: for total nitrogen 5-6%, phosphorus 12-16%, and for suspensions 17-29%. The effectiveness of the treatment is highly influenced by hydraulic load, so this type application on a full-scale should occupy a sufficiently large volume. Taking into account simplicity of performance, ease of operation and low cost of construction and maintenance, such pretreatment plants based on expanded clay would seem to be a promising tool for the protection of surface waters in catchments of small rivers and streams.
Piotr Matuszak, Grzegorz Grodzicki, Tomasz Jankowski and Paweł Matlakiewicz
The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity), changes within tissues (cytotoxicity) and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.
Wood-based ash landfilling is increasing issue not only in Latvia but in the whole world as more biomass is used for energy production. Utilization of wood burning waste as fertilizer is already used worldwide, but there is lack of information about chemical composition of wood ash obtained from Latvia plants, so the aim of this study was to determine chemical composition and analyse possible utilization options of wood-based ash from Latvia plants. Therefore wood ash samples from 53 companies were collected, sieved and chemical composition of samples was determined. It was concluded that within higher capacity of furnace more coarse fraction of wood ash was observed which is less valuable as fertilizer. Wood ash is good liming material consisting alkali compounds and other biogenic elements but also heavy metals, which are pollutants and could cause environmental problems.
It has been generally recognized that BigData analytics presently have most significant impact on computer inference in life sciences, such as genome wide association studies (GWAS) in basic research and personalized medicine, and its importance will further increase in near future. In this work non-parametric separation of responsive yeast genes from experimental data obtained in chemostat cultivation under dilution rate and nutrient limitations with basic biogenic elements (C,N,S,P), and the specific leucine and uracil auxothropic limitations. Elastic net models are applied for the detection of the key responsive genes for each of the specific limitations. Bootstrap and perturbation methods are used to determine the most important responsive genes and corresponding quantiles applied to the complete data set for all of the nutritional and growth rate limitations. The model predicts that response of gene YOR348C, involved in proline metabolism, as the key signature of stress. Based on literature data, the obtained result are confirmed experimentally by the biochemistry of plants under physical and chemical stress, also by functional genomics of bakers yeast, and also its important function in human tumorogenesis is observed.
The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological and physico-chemical composition of sewage sludge from the food industry. The research material was dewatered sewage sludge with and without lime, derived from the water and drink production plant in the Opole region, obtained for testing in March 2013. Physico-chemical analysis included the determination of: pH, temperature of sludge, sedimentation properties, the dry weight, mineral substances, biogenic elements and heavy metals. Microbiological evaluation included quantitative and qualitative determination of mesophilic, psychrophilic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Sewage sludge with and without lime characterized similar physico-chemical parameters. However, the addition of lime to the sludge led to a change in ratios of different groups of microorganisms. In the sludge with lime, we observed reduction in the number of mesophilic bacteria and yeast, and total inhibition of psychrophilic bacteria and fungi. Knowledge of the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological composition of the sewage sludge is needed to determine the directions of their development
Adam Szewczyk, Janina Kaniuczak, Edmund Hajduk and Renata Knap
The aim of the study was to investigate the basic physicochemical and chemical properties of six soil profiles located in the surrounding of the Magura National Park (S Poland). The type of agricultural use and terrain relief were the main criteria for choosing the soil profiles. The research identified the following types or sub-types of soils: Eutric Gleysols, Dystric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Gleyic Luvisols. The analyzed soils were characterized by particle size distribution of a silty clay or silt. They were usually strongly acidified as evidenced by low pH (in 1M KCl, values ranged from 3.8 to 5.8), high values of hydrolytic acidity (from 0.8 up to 10 cmol(+)·kg-1) and exchangeable acidity (from 0.05 to 4.05 cmol(+)·kg-1), as well as remarkable concentration of exchangeable aluminum (from 0 to 3.96 cmol(+)·kg-1). The organic carbon content in studied profiles did not exceed (except from gley soil in profile ) 30 g·kg-1 and it decreased along with the depth to several g·kg-1 in parent rock. These soils were characterized by not very high content of total nitrogen (from 0.3 to 9.39 g·kg-1) and low available phosphorus concentration (from 3.5 to 90.3 mg P2O5·kg-1). Contents of available potassium (from 82 to 570 mg K2O·kg-1) and magnesium (from 33 to 412 mg Mg·kg-1) allow for classifying the profiles studied as soils moderately or highly abundant in K and Mg. The highest levels of biogenic elements were determined in surface horizons. Studied soils were characterized by high total sorption capacity (T) - from 7.04 to 63.4 cmol(+)·kg-1. Sum of base cations (S) reached values from 3.01 to 61.2 cmol(+)·kg-1, which resulted in high base saturation (V) (maximum over 96%). The base saturations in profiles of the soils increased along with depth.
13: 345-376 (in Polish, English summary).
Körner S., 2002, Loss of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes in North-Eastern Germany, Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 87(4): 375-384.
Kufel L., 1999, Transport pierwiastków biogennych w zlewniach Mazurskiego Parku Krajobrazowego (Transport of biogenicelements in the catchment areas of the Masurian Landscape Park), [in:] Zdanowski B., Kamiński M., Martyniak A. (eds), Funkcjonowanie i ochrona ekosystemów wodnych na obszarach chronionych (Functioning and protection of water ecosystems in
Rastislav Janík, Eduard Bublinec and Margita Dubová
Bavaria, Germany variations with seasons and soil depth. Biogeochemistry , 72(3), 337-364. DOI:10.1007/s10533-004-0155-5.
Kaluz, K. (2004). Imission situation in Slovakia and ecosystems deterioration (in Slovak) . Nitra: SPU Nitra.
Katutis, K., Repsiene, R. & Baltramaityte D. (2008). The effects of different soil genesis on the concentration of biogenicelements in lysimetric water. Agronomijas Věstis (Latvian Journal of Agronomy) , 10, 37-41.
Kaňa, J. & Kopaček J. (2005). Sulphate sorption characteristics of the Česke
content of biogenicelements in forest treespecies (in Slovak). Lesnícky Časopis, 38(4), 365−375.
Bublinec, E. (1993). Influence of regeneration cutting applied in a spruce ecosystem on sulphate deposition in the throughfall of this ecosystem (in Slovak). Lesnícky Časopis, 39(6), 525−530.
Bublinec, E. & Dubová M. (1993). Annual dynamics of calcium deposition and its ecological consequences for forest ecosystem (in Slovak). Lesnícky Časopis, 39(5), 405−413.
Bublinec, E. (1994). Concentration, accumulation and cycles of