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References ANDERSON, J. & HONNETH, A. (2005): Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition and Justice. In: J. Christman & J. Anderson (eds.): Autonomy and the Challenge to Liberalism: New Essays . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 127–149. CALLAHAN, D (2003): Individual Good and Common Good: a Communitarian Approach to Bioethics’. In: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 46, pp. 496–507. CAPLAN, A. (1985): Our Brothers’ Keepers (book review). Robert Goodin, Protecting the Vulnerable: A Reanalysis of Our Social Responsibilities. Chicago: University of

Routledge handbook of libertarianism . New York: Routledge, pp. 405–416. GRUNEBAUM, J. (1987): Private ownership . New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. HARARI, Y. N. (2015): What explains the rise of humans? In: TED Ideas worth spreading [online] [Retrieved January 13, 2020]. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/yuval_noah_harari_what_explains_the_rise_of_humans HESTER, D. M. (2010): End-of-life care and pragmatic decision making : A bioethical perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. HŘÍBEK, T. (2010): Za etiku bez teologie. K článku Marka Váchy o

Abstract

This text presents an assessment of the literary work of Karel Čapek from a perspective that has not yet been discussed. It focuses on analysing Čapek’s works from the viewpoint of their possible inspiration by bioethical issues. Čapek’s philosophy and the powerful ethical charge of his texts tend to be associated with his interest in pragmatism, a subject to which he, however, took an individual and critical approach. One of the most important categories of his way of thinking is life. In his prose works and plays we therefore see motifs that may be associated with the thematic definition of bioethics. These are questions concerning the value and quality of human life, issues concerning the dehumanizing impact of science and technology, as well as reflections upon the moral dimension of man’s relationship to nature and also to the relationship between people and animals. Čapek’s work may therefore provide inspiration from the perspective of the history of the gradual formation of the bioethical point of view.

[online] [Retrieved September 20, 2017]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/aug/14/sir-patrick-bateson-obituary . MÜLLEROVÁ. H., ČERNÝ, D., DOLEŽAL, A. et al. (2016): Kapitoly o právech zvířat. „My a oni“ z pohledu filosofie, etiky, biologie a práva [ Chapters on animal rights. „we and they” form perspective of philosophy, ethics, biology and law ]. Prague: Academia. POST, S. G. (ed.) (2004): Encyclopedia of Bioethics , 3rd ed. New York: Thomson & Macmillan. REGAN, T. (2003): Animal Rights, Human Wrongs: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy

Abstract

The paper discusses inappropriate (futile) treatment by analyzing the casuistics of palliative patients in the terminal stage of illness who are hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics of the Faculty hospital with policlinic (FNsP). Our research applies the principles of palliative care in the context of bioethics. The existing clinical conditions of healthcare in Slovakia are characteristic of making a taboo of the issues of inappropriate treatment of palliative patients. Inductive-deductive and normative clinical bioethics methods of palliative care and ethical strategy are applied for defining issues found in inappropriate hemodialysis treatment. An algorithm of hemodialysis treatment requires the definition of those lege artis criteria which, in the context of a patient’s autonomy and his/her decision, precondition the avoidance of the situation in which hemodialysis treatment is inappropriate (futile). Futile treatment in a terminal condition is ethically inappropriate medical treatment that extends the suffering of patients and their relatives. Its definition is determined by the relevant legislation and the methods of bioethics. An active palliative strategy is aimed at managing the process of incurable diseases in the patient’s bio-psycho-socio-spiritual continuity in the process of special bioethics. The global bioethical objective of general bioethics for palliative care is based on the paradigm of social harmony and solidarity in the context of an authentic modus of the patient’s existence as a constitutive principle for the phenomenon of the patient’s being to finite being (death).

to Treat, and Civil Disobedience – Practicing Medicine as a Christian in a Hostile Secular Moral Space. In: Christian Bioethics , 18(1), pp. 1–14. CHURCHILL, R. P. (1996): Conscientious Objection. In: D. K. Wells (ed.): An Encyclopedia of War and Ethics . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 99–102. COHEN, C. (1968): Conscientious Objection. In: Ethics, 78(4), pp. 269–279. COWLEY, C. (2016): Conscientious Objection and Healthcare in the UK: Why Tribunals are not the Answer. In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 42(2), pp. 69–72. DICKENS, M. B (2009a): Conscientious

References 1. Jonsen A. The Birth of Bioethics. Part I: Bioethical Beginnings: The people and places. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1998:3-34. 2. Post SG. Bioethics. In: Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3d edition. USA: Macmillan Reference; 2004:278-87. 3. Aulisio MP. Ethics consultation: Is it enough to mean well? Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 1999;11(3):208-17. 4. Aleksandrova-Yankulovska S. Clinical ethics consultation - attitude towards the introduction, training in ethical analysis and application of methodology for decision-making in clinical

/2004): The case for animal rights . Berkeley: University of California Press. RITHALIA, A., MCDAID, C., SUEKARRAN, S., LINDSEY, M. & SOWDEN, A. (2009): Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review. In: BMJ , 338, p. a3162. SHEWMON, A. D. (1998): Chronic “brain death”: Meta-analysis and conceptual consequences. In: Neurology , 51(6), pp. 1538–1545. SILVER, D. (2003): Lethal injection, autonomy and the proper ends of medicine. In: Bioethics , 17(2), pp. 205–211. SINGER, P. (1994): Rethinking life and death: The collapse of our

References DRANSEIKA, V. & NEIDERS, I. (2018): In defense of pluralistic policy on the determination of death. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 179–188. KALAJTZIDIS, J. (2018): The challenge of death and ethics of social consequences: Death of moral agency. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 209–218. KOMENSKÁ, K. (2018): Death, ethical judgments and dignity. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 201–208. NOWAK, P. G. (2018): Brain death as irreversible loss of a human’s moral status. In

References CAMPBELL, A., CHARLESWORTH, M., GILLET, G. & JONES, G. (1997): Medical ethics . Auckland: Oxford University Press. CLARK, W. R. (1996): Sex & the origins of death. Oxford: Oxford University Press. COHEN, C. B. (1983): “Quality of Life” and analogy with the Nazis. In: The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 8(5), pp. 113–135. GLUCHMAN, M. (2013): Medical ethics and the problem of assisted suicide. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 3(1–2), pp. 67–75. GLUCHMAN, M. (2014a): Problém humánnosti a ľudskej dôstojnosti v bioetike [ The