Gaļina Zvaigzne, Daina Kārkliņa, Joerg-Thomas Moersel, Sasha Kuehn, Inta Krasnova and Dalija Segliņa
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Polydera, A. C., Stoforos, N. G., Taoukis, P. S. (2005). Quality degradation kinetics of pasteurised and high pressure processed fresh Navel orange juice: Nutritional parameters and shelf life. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 6 (1), 1–9.
Rao, A. V. Rao, L. G. (2007). Carotenoids and
Birch and maple saps contain carbohydrates and organic acids, B complex vitamins and vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and mineral substances. The aim of the study was to quantitatively determine the concentrations of bioactive compounds and mineral substances in Latvian birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) saps. Electrical conductivity was determined (629 and 967 S/cm in birch and maple saps, respectively) to characterise the total amount of mineral substances. In birch and maple saps the titratable acidity (0.50 and 0.70 mmol of NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) and formol number (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) were determined. The protein concentration was found to be higher in maple sap (171 and 127 mg/l, respectively). The antioxidant concentration, determined using quercetin as a standard, was 0.35 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/l in birch sap and 0.77 mg QE/l in maple sap. In conclusion, Latvian maple sap contains more bioactive and mineral compounds than birch sap. Latvian birch sap contains up to 20% more glucose and fructose than birch sap produced in Finland, but Latvian maple sap contains 10 to 40% less sucrose than sap produced in North America.
Elena Peñas, Danuta Zielińska, Piotr Gulewicz, Henryk Zieliński and Juana Frias
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21. Gan L., Zhang S.H., Liang Yang X., Bi Xu H., Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium
Māra Dūma, Ina Alsiņa, Laila Dubova and Ieva Erdberga
De Sousa, F. A., Neves, A. N., De Queiroz, M. E. L. R., Heleno, F. F., Teofilo, R., F., de Pinho, G. P. (2014). Influence of ripening stages of tomatoes in the analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. J. Braz. Chem. Soc ., 25 (8), 1431–1438.
Del Giudice, R., Raiola, A., Tenore, G.C., Frusciante, L., Baron, A., Monti, D.M., Rigano, M. M. (2015). Antioxidant bioactivecompounds in tomato fruits at different ripening stages and their effects on normal and cancer cells. J. Funct. Foods , 18 , 83–94.
Dumas, Y., Dadomo, M., Di Lucca, G
Annel M Hernández-Alcántara, Alfonso Totosaus and M. Lourdes Pérez-Chabela
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21. Gorinstein, S., Martin-Belloso, O., Lojek, A., Cíz, M., Soliva-Fortuny, R., Park, Y.-S., Caspi, A., Libman, I. & Trakhtenberg, S. (2002
Bruno A. dos Reis, Agnieszka Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Rudolf Schmitt and Wilfried Andlauer
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9. Horszwald A., Andlauer W, Characterisation of bioactivecompounds in berry juices by traditional photometric and modern microplate methods. J. Berry Res., 2011, 1, 189-199.
10. Hur S.J., Lee S.Y., Kim Y.-C, Choi I., Kim G
Ilona Dabina-Bicka, Daina Karklina, Zanda Kruma and Fredijs Dimins
Beer is a complex mixture - over 400 different compounds have been characterized in beer. Significant health and product quality promoting benefits have been attributed to its bioactive secondary metabolites such as phenolics. Polyphenols and phenolic acids present in beer are natural antioxidants. The aim of the research was to characterize the bioactive compounds in Latvian barley beer, such as phenolic acids and flavanols. In an experiment, different lager-type beers produced in Latvia were analysed. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Individual phenolic compounds were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant potential of beer was analyzed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydraziyl (DPPH) radical assays and expressed as micromoles of Trolox equivalents. The research showed that the total phenolic content of dark beer samples (320.8-863.6 mg GE L-1) was mostly higher than that of the light beers (300.9-475.2 mg GE L-1). In total, eleven phenols were determined in the analysed samples. Also the sum of individual phenolics in dark beer samples was higher than in the light beer brands. All beer samples exhibited a strong DPPH radical scavenging activity: from 441.3 to 1064.2 μmol TE L-1 for the light beer samples, and from 726.2 to 1748.7 μmol TE L-1 for the dark beer. The research suggests that composition of beer phenolic compounds was not dependent on the type of beer - light or dark.
M. Valšíková, J. Mlček, L. Snopek, M. Rehuš, S. Škrovánková, T. Juríková, D. Sumczynski and O. Paulen
physicochemical parameters, bioactivecompounds and sensorial attributes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 67, 139–144. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.02.018.
Zushi K, Matsuzoe N (2009): Seasonal and cultivar differences in salt-induced changes in antioxidant system in tomato. Scientia Horticulturae, 120, 181–187. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2008.10.005.