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. Studies in biennial bearing. Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science 14: 39–76. DOI: 10.1080/03683621.1937.11513464. Irigoyen J.J., Einerich D.W., Sánchez-Díaz M. 1992. Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) plants. Physiologia Plantarum 84(1): 144–158. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb08764.x. Jonkers H. 1979. Biennial bearing in apple and pear: a literature survey. Scientia Horticulturae 11: 303–317. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4238(79)90015-3. Khayyat M., Barati Z., Aminifard M


The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of rootstock and cultivar combinations for high density orchards in northern climate conditions like in Latvia. In 2009, a trial was established with rootstocks M.9 and B.396 in combination with seven cultivars. The density of trees reached 2500 trees per 1 ha. The yields and the observed yield efficiency of all cultivars during the first four production years were larger on rootstock B.396. Also, average trunk diameter was slightly larger on this rootstock. On both rootstocks cultivars, ‘Gita’ and ‘Ligol’ had larger part of total yield formed on previous year shoots. These cultivars had more vigorous trunks as well. In the orchard at the given density, on both rootstocks thinner trunks and smaller yields were observed for cultivars with poor branching, like ‘White Transparent’ and ‘Konfetnoye’. ‘Rubin’ (Kazakh cv.) had low yield, this cultivar produces very large fruits on the ends of shoots. Lower average yields were also obtained for cultivars that produce fruits on spurs of older branch sections, like ‘Antei’ and ‘Kovalenkovskoye’. Summer cultivar ‘Konfetnoye’ had relatively smaller fruits. Rootstock B.396 and scab resistant cultivar ‘Gita’ showed best performance in the high density orchard.

Extension Factsheet F-127R. Hoblyn T.N., Grubb N.H., Painter A.C., Wates B.L. 1936. Studies on biennial bearing - I. Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science 14: 39-76. DOI: 10.1080/03683621.1937.11513464. Jacyna T., Barnard J., Wielgus M. 2012. Immediate and residual effects of prohexadione-calcium, with or without ethephon, applied in a low-pH solution on vegetative and reproductive growth in sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L.). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 87: 577-582. DOI: 10.1080/14620316.2012.11512914. Mata A.P., Val J., Blanco A. 2006

Regulators in Fruit Production 239 311 322 L avee , S. (2007). Biennial bearing in olive ( Olea europaea ). Annales, Series Historia Naturalis, 17 , 101–112. Lavee S. 2007 Biennial bearing in olive ( Olea europaea ) Annales, Series Historia Naturalis 17 101 112 L in , T. S., C rane , J. C., and R yugo , K. (1984). Effects of gibberellic acid on vegetative and inflorescence buds of pistachio. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 109 (1), 39–42. Lin T. S. Crane J. C. Ryugo K. 1984 Effects of gibberellic acid on vegetative and inflorescence buds of