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-regions : Routledge Ltd. (2010). [17] HCM Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board , National Research Council, Washington D.C.. (2000). [18] IDU. Ciclorutas. Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano (IDU), City of Bogota, Colombia. Available at: http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/espacio_Ciclorutas . (2009). [19] JENSEN, S. U. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Level of Service on Roadway Segments. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2031(1), 43-51. (2007). [20] KANG, K., & LEE, K. Development of a bicycle level of service model from

Abstract

This study aimed at providing a reference for the selection of energy tonics for sportsmen engaging in high-strength training and competitions by investigating the effects of the intake of beverages containing glycerinum before exercise at high temperature on the physical functions of bicyclists. Forty bicyclists were selected as research subjects and divided into a test group and a control group. The indexes such as urine volume, weight loss value, oxyhemoglobin saturation, blood lactic acid, nervous tension difference value and reaction time were detected after the sportsmen took different beverages. The conclusions were drawn after the data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 18.0. The research results demonstrated that, the intake of beverages containing glycerinum could reduce urine output and lower weight loss value, prolong the endurance riding time of bicyclists in high temperature environment, reduce the concentration of blood lactic acid, improve the aerobic exercise ability of sportsmen, relieve nervous tension and fatigue, and improve physical functions.

A New Approach to Assessment of Infrastructure Projects on Urban Transport Systems

The scientific analysis of currently used assessment principles of the development on urban transport systems; subsystems on vehicles, passenger and freight transportations, special public services, pedestrian and bicyclists has been carried out. Each subsystem needs technical infrastructure, the set of informational and traffic control means. Moreover quantitative and qualitative development of transport infrastructure is necessary for appropriate operating of whole communication system. Unfortunately an increase in the level of automobilization, growing transport flows in urban territories and decreasing investment for the development of transport infrastructure are the main barriers for urban development. An uncontrolled increase in automobilization changed the character of the usage of urban territories, urban structure, stimulated the process of agglomeration and formed new problems.

The results of expert evaluation and statistical analysis highlighted the influence of each subsystem on the sustainable development of whole urban transport system by technical, traffic safety, social-economic, environmental and other specific aspects. Objects of technical infrastructure that should be treated as infrastructure of urban road transport system were identified. The results of statistics analysis allowed determine features of separate objects necessary to evaluate; assess and adjust separate stages, key principles and quantitative and qualitative criteria of assessment of the development on urban transport systems infrastructure.

facial injuries in bicyclists Accessed at http://www.thecochranelibrary.com on 12-302013. Published by JohnWiley& Sons, Ltd 2009, Issue 1 [17] Verma SK, Aggarwal NK, Kohli A. Accidental ligature strangulation deaths in East Delhi (India). Med Sci Law 2005; 45:47-51.

, Brandstaetter C, Pace JF et al. Basic Fact Sheet “Cyclists”. 2012. Deliverable D3.9 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA., European Commision, Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. [5] Williams A. Bicyclist Safety. 2014. Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington DC, USA. [6] Halpern LW. U.S. Bicyclist deaths in motor vehicle accidents increase dramatically. Am J Nurs 2015; 115(2):17. [7] Weijermars W, Bos N, Stipdonk HL. Serious road injuries in the Netherlands dissected. Traffic Inj Prev 2016; 17(1):73-79. [8] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. NCSA

: 0091-7435. 15. Piatkowski, D., Kevin P., Krizek J., Handy, S. L. (2015) Accounting for the Short Term Substitution Effects of Walking and Cycling in Sustainable Transportation, Travel Behaviour and Society 2 (1): 32-41. doi:10.1016/j.tbs.2014.07.004. 16. Schepers, J. P, Wolt, K.K. (2012) Single-bicycle crash types and characteristics. Cycling Research International, 2:119-35. 17. Shinar, D. (2012) Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Motorcyclists. Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and

.: Innovative design of GFRP sandwich footbridge, Proc. 5th International Conference on Footbridges: Past, Present & Future, Footbridge 2014, London, England, 16-18 July 2014, Paper #1250, pp. 1-8 7. Chróścielewski J., Klasztorny M., Wilde K., Miśkiewicz M., Romanowski R.: Composite sandwich bridge for pedestrians and bicyclists ( in Polish), Materiały Budowlane 7/2014 (No. 503), pp. 1-2. 8. Chróścielewski J., Miśkiewicz M., Pyrzowski Ł., Rucka M, Ferenc T.: Experimental tests of a validation segment of composite foot - bicycle bridge (in Polish). Materiały Budowlane 4

. MobiSys, 2013. [51] A. Zhan, M. Chang, Y. Chen, and A. Terzis. Accurate caloric expenditure of bicyclists using cellphones. SenSys, 2012. [52] X. Y. Zhang, G. S. Xie, C. L. Liu, and Y. Bengio. End-toend online writer identification with recurrent neural network. THMS , 2017.

cycling position on thoracic spine. A novel method of measuring thoracic kyphosis in the standing position. Arch Physiol Biochem, 2000; 1: 142. Salai M, Brosh T, Blankstein A, Oran A, Chechik A. Effect of changing the saddle angle on the incidence of low back pain in recreational bicyclists. Br J Sports Med, 1999; 33: 398-400. Sato K, Kikuchi S, Yonezawa T. In vivo intradiscal pressure measurement in healthy individuals and in patients with ongoing back problems. Spine, 1999; 24: 2468-2474. Shin G, Shu Y, Li Z, Jiang Z, Mirka G. Influence of knee angle and individual

.J., 2018. Where do bike lanes work best? A Bayesian spatial model of bicycle lanes and bicycle crashes. Safety Science 103: 225–233. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2017.12.002 Kondo M.C. Morrison C. Guerra E. Kaufman E.J. Wiebe D.J. 2018 Where do bike lanes work best? A Bayesian spatial model of bicycle lanes and bicycle crashes Safety Science 103 225 233 10.1016/j.ssci.2017.12.002 Kim J.K., Kim S., Ulfarsson G.F., Portello L.A., 2007. Bicyclist injury severities in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention 39(2): 238–251. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2006