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For over a decade, our research group has studied the biology of the native bumblebee, Bombus atratus, to investigate the feasibility of using it to pollinate crops such as tomato, strawberry, blackberry and peppers. Traditionally, captive breeding has depended on the use of captured wild queens to initiate the colonies. The goal of the current work is to investigate conditions required to produce new queens and drones in captivity. In this study, 31 colonies were evaluated under either greenhouse or open field conditions over a 15 month period. A total of 1492 drones (D) and 737 gynes (G, i.e., virgin queens) were produced by all colonies, with 16 colonies producing both drones and gynes (D&G), 11 producing only drones (D) and 4 producing neither. Some of the D&G colonies had more than one sexual phase, but no colonies produced exclusively gynes. More drones and fewer gynes were produced per colony under greenhouse conditions with the highest number of drones produced by D&G colonies. The numbers of immature stages per cell declined in colonies as increasingly more resources were allocated to the production of gynes and the maintenance of increased nest temperature.

relevance. In honey bee breeding, pollen substitutes are used during the period of food shortage or to stimulate colony strength. A number of investigations have been performed on the effects of different protein sources, and other additives on bee productivity have been tested (reviewed in: Herbert, 1997 ; Black, 2006 ). In addition, beekeeping practices often include the use of different natural protein sources to be administered to bees, according to local or individual customs. However, despite many decades of beekeeping research and practice, pollen substitutes

Pszczół [Bees breeding], PWRiL, Oddział Poznań, pp. 203-253. Wilde J., Paleolog J., Grabowski P., Siuda M., Bratkowski J. (2011) - Correlated and direct responses to selection for high and low pollen yield in a small, open population of Apis mellifera carnica . J. Apic. Res ., 50(3): 181-189

. (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research. 52(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA. Laidlaw H. H., Page R. E. (1997) Queen rearing and bee breeding. Wicwas Press. Connecticut, USA. 224 pp. Mahbobi A., Farshineh-Adl M. B., Woyke J., Abbasi S. (2012) Effects of age of grafted larvae and supplemental feeding on some morphological characteristics of Iranian queen honey bees (Apis mellifera meda Skorikov, 1929). Journal of Apicultural Science 56 (1): 93-98. Nelson D., Gary N. (1983) Honey productivity

. Laidlaw, H. H., & Page Jr., R. E. (1997). Queen Rearing and Bee Breeding. Cheshire: Wicwas Press. Macicka, M. (1985). The effect of several factors on the acceptance of larvae and on queen weigth. Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe, 29, 73-80. Pickard, R. S., & Kither, G. Y. (1983). Acceptance of transplanted worker larvae by queen-cell starter colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research, 22(3), 169-74. Skowronek, W., & Skubida, P. (1988). The effect of internal conditions in the honeybee colony on queen rearing and the quality

technology], in: J. Wilde and J. Prabucki (Eds) Hodowla pszczół [Bees breeding], PWRiL, Oddział Poznań, pp. 203-253.

queen caging condition on insemination results. J. Apic. Sci. , 49(1): 5-15. Harbo J. R. (1986) - Propagation and instrumental insemination, in: Renderer T.E.(Ed.), Bee Breeding and Genetics, Academic Press, Inc. , pp. 361-389. Janoušek J. (1987) - Effect of carbon dioxide on initiation of oviposition of inseminated queens. Vedecke Prace, V.U.V. v Dole , 9: 57-64. Kaftanoglu O., Peng V. S. (1982) - Effects of insemination on the initiation of oviposition in the queen honeybee. J. Apic. Res. , 21(1): 3-6. Konopacka Z. (1991) - Wpływ narkozy CO 2 i N 2 O na wyniki

: Rinderer T.E. (Ed.), Bee Breeding and Genetics , Academic Press, Inc., pp. 361-389. Janoušek J. (1987) - Effect of carbon dioxide on initial oviposition of inseminated queens. Vedecke Prace Vyzkumneho Ustavu Vcelarskeho v Dole 9: 57-64. Kaftanoglu O., Peng Y. S. (1982) - Effect of insemination on the initiation of oviposition in the queen honeybee. J. Apic. Res. , 21: 3-6 Koeniger G. (1976) - Einfluss der Kopulation auf den Beginn der Eiablage bei der Bienenköningin ( Apis mell. L.). Apidologie 7: 343-355. Koeniger G. (1981) - In welchem Abschnitt des

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

., Hatjina F., Bouga M., Ivanova E., Büchler R., (2010) - Conserving diversity and vitality for honey bee breeding. J. Apic. Res. , 49(1): 85-92. Neumann P., Carreck N. L. (2010) - Honey bee colony losses. J. Apic. Res. , 49(1): 1-6. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA. Nguyen B. K., Saegerman C., Pirard C., Mignon J., Widart J., Thirionet B., Verheggen F. J., Berkvens D., De Pauw E., Haubruge E. (2009) - Does imidacloprid seed-treated maize have an impact on honey bee mortality? J. Econ. Entomol. , 102: 616-623. Potts S. G., Biesmeijer J. C., Kremen C., Neumann P., Schweiger O