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Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issue of risk mainly in banking activity. Different definitions of risk were reviewed as tools for risk management in banks and for regulatory activities by institutions. Materials and methods: The research material was taken from the subject literature and official documents of financial market institutions - international organizations, as well as foreign and domestic financial institutions. They were mainly legal acts, standards and guidelines/recommendations. Particular attention was paid to documents published by banking supervision authorities. Results: As a result of the study, the multiplicity of concepts and approaches were found to define and identify banking risks as the categorizations presented by regulators seemed to be a standard to apply in risk management practices. Conclusions: Among the risk categorization used by banks, the leading ones have been presented by supervisory authorities. Defining the types of risk in operations should be the first stage of the internal risk management process which is necessary for banks’ survival. Ensuring high quality of the implementation of the first stage determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire process. The decisive requirements set by European and national regulators with regard to banks’ application of risk categorization as part of the risk management system contributed to mitigating the phenomena related to the global financial crisis among banks in Europe.


Research background: Motivation for this study is the rapid development of conglomerate banking stimulated by the synergy between the traditional and parallel investment activity of banks before the 2007–2008 financial crisis. Existing studies do not answer the question about the positive influence of diversification on bank stability. They state that the combination of lending and non-interest income allows benefits to be derived from risk diversification. However, on the other hand they emphasise that non-interest and interest incomes are strongly correlated, which does not bring positive effects from diversification.

Purpose: Scientific problem aimed to be solved is to verify how the diversification of activities in commercial banks into non-interest products (i.e. trading, securities-based investment activities, and derivatives) brings positive effects such as income stabilization and risk reduction. We examine the implications of banks’ risk adjusted ROA that manifest themselves as spreading and growing instability.

Research methodology: We use a panel regression model, through a dataset that covers 777 international banks, in 91 selected countries of the world, spanning the period of 1996–2015.

Results: We document that the diversification of a bank’s operations is varied and depends on a bank’s characteristics, including asset size.

Novelty: The study contributes to the on-going discussion on the separation of retail and investment banks with a view to enhancing their profit stability.

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