Emília Hijová, Jozef Kuzma, Ladislav Strojný, Alojz Bomba, Izabela Bertková, Anna Chmelárová, Zdena Hertelyová, Lucia Kuliková, Jana Štofilová and Ľuboš Ambro
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Ilona Bachanek, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio and Jacek Skomiał
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dietary level of two types of inulin differing in the degree of polymerization (DP) on microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks. The experiment was performed on 70 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks divided into 7 groups fed starter-type diets without inulin addition or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% of inulin with DP≥10 (IN10), or DP≥23 (IN23). After 14 days of feeding birds were sacrificed to collect digesta samples from caeca and colon. Caecal digesta was examined for pH, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and amines, activities of β-glucosidase and mucinase, and relative amount of selected bacterial populations, whereas in colonic digesta only pH, SCFA and amines were analysed. Regardless of DP, inulin level did not affect digesta pH, activity of bacterial enzymes and relative amounts of Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and E. coli populations. Dietary level of IN10 significantly affected propionic acid concentration, which was greater in caecal digesta of birds fed diet supplemented with 0.2% of IN10 compared to other groups and feeding diets supplemented with all levels of IN10 significantly reduced histamine concentration compared to the control. There were no effects of inulin on microbial activity indices in the colon. The present study indicates that, regardless of DP, inulin does not modify considerably microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks.
Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Bogusław Król, Monika Kosmala, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk and Ewa Żary-Sikorska
The objective of this study was to establish the composition of strawberry preparations rich in ellagitannins obtained using water or acetone extraction (EF and EP preparation, respectively). Then, biological effect of these extracts was assessed in 4-wk nutritional experiment on Wistar rats. The preparations were applied in cholesterol-containing diets that had equal content of ellagitannins (0.03%). To measure animals response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation (ammonia and short-chain fatty acid concentrations, bacterial enzymes activity), blood serum lipoprotein profile, and TBARS content in selected tissues (heart, liver, kidney) were assessed. Apart from polyphenols, including ellagitannins (7.8 and 7.1%, respectively), the EF preparation contained high quantities of soluble dietary fibre and other carbohydrates (33.3 and 38.9%, respectively), whereas the EP preparation was characterised by 58.9% content of ellagitannins, no dietary fibre and a high content of proanthocyanidins (16.9%). In comparison to EF group, the dietary treatment with EP had a stronger effect on caecal environment as manifested by decreased digesta bulk, β-glucuronidase activity and total short-chain fatty acid concentration (P<0.05 vs. group C without supplementation). Both preparations lowered lipaemia and glycaemia. It could be concluded that more efficient acetone extraction of strawberry pomace increased the content of both ellagitannins and proanthocyanidins in the polyphenolic preparation, which caused a stronger inhibiting effect on caecal fermentation processes and at the same time lowered blood triacylglycerols and glucose level. Considering the equal content of ellagitannins in both supplemented diets, it may be speculated that the above effects were due to the presence of proanthocyanidin fraction.
Hijová Emília, Bertková Izabela, Štofilová Jana, Strojný Ladislav, Chmelárová Anna and Bomba Alojz
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František Lád, Václav Kubát, Jaromír Kadlec, Bohuslav Čermák and Milan Kobes
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