Degradation of the environment is nowadays believed to be the most alarming problem that needs to be solved. Global warming and environmental pollution are predicted to cause a catastrophic chain reaction leading to species extinction, mass emigration due to rising sea levels and global crisis. The only solution suggested by international organizations is the immediate reduction of greenhouse gases and other harmful substances. Marine transportation harmful substances into the atmosphere are recognized to be a significant source of global atmospheric pollution. Despite the high efficiency of marine diesel engines, their impact on the environment is considerable. Due to environmentally friendly policies, modern engines concerns about not only efficiency but also mainly about s aspects. This article analyses and compares marine s exhaust gases reduction methods. Especially the most harmful substances emitted by ships were taken into consideration. The article presents the most crucial law regulations of harmful substances to the atmosphere, pointing at actual and possible future implementations. The most complex methods allowing meeting the latest limits were presented. Pros and cons of available control methods were thoroughly described and methods were compared. The most adequate methods form the effectiveness and economical point of view was pointed out.
The increase of methane concentration has been established during the last decades. This gas has a relative potential for thermal absorption, 30 times higher than CO2, which means that it is more active in the interaction with the ozone and its blocking. About 70% of the global total emission of methane in the atmosphere is of biogenic origin. Flooded paddy fields are one of the main sources of atmosphere pollutions with methane. Irrigation of rice fields by overflowing reduces the feeding of the ground with oxygen from the air. This in turn affects the fermentation of organic substances in the ground. Methane is the final product in this process. The measurement was performed in the phase of rice earing by an authorized laboratory associated to the Executive Environment Agency at the Ministry of Waters and Environment by means of methods specified by the Ministry. The concentrations of damaging substances were automatically measured at every 60 min for SO2, NO2, NO, and at every 30 min for H2S, CH4, NMHC, CO, and NH3. The obtained results prove that the concentrations of NO, H2S, CH4 and NMHC exceed all limits. The quantity of gases is influenced by the variety peculiarities of the culture (the roots mass, the total bio-mass and the running metabolic processes).
Ozone is a natural and artificial chemical compound of Earth’s atmosphere. O3 is an absorbent of ultraviolet and infrared radiation and has strong oxidative properties. In the stratosphere the ozone layer protects the planet’s surface from dangerous UV radiation, its indirect effect on plant organisms is positive so stratospheric ozone can be called “good” ozone. The depletion of the ozone layer, as a result of atmosphere pollution, described as an ozone “hole” is causing UVB radiation enhanced level on Earth’s surface. The genetic, cytological, physiological and morphological reaction of prolonged UVB exposure in plants is twofold: it damages plants and simultaneously plants protect themselves and repair their injuries. The ozone in the troposphere originates from natural sources and is also a secondary pollutant, formed in photochemical reactions, leading to “smog” and ozone “spots” occurrence. As a strong oxidant, O3 is directly toxic to plants and can be recognized as “bad” ozone. Ozone is also classified as a “greenhouse” gas, participating in global warming. It is difficult to value the impact of O3 as a “greenhouse” gas on plants. The combined effect of O3 changes in the stratosphere and troposphere on plants can be estimated as loss in crop yield and in productivity of natural ecosystems
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