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Introduction Athletic performance is a multifactorial phenotype influenced by environmental factors as well as multiple genetic variants (i.e., polymorphisms) acting as key intrinsic factors. The world-wide studies have showed that genetic elements have a great influence over components of athletic performance such as endurance, strength, power, flexibility, neuromuscular coordination, psychological traits and other features important in sport. In sport genomics studies involving athletes of many disciplines, the heritability of athlete status was estimated at 66

exercise induces several mechanical and functional changes in muscles. Most of the research on ECC exercise has been carried out on non-athletes or those who have not been involved in resistance training programs ( Kawczynski et al., 2018 ). Recent studies, which focused on non-athletes, showed that training can modify response to ECC exercise. An experiment performed by Rinard and co-workers (2000) proved that previous concentric training caused greater changes in measured variables and suggested increased vulnerability to eccentric exercise-induced responses and muscle

Introduction Who we are, how we behave in different life situations frequently determines our path to success or failure. Personality traits, especially in sport are modulatory factors of athlete’s behavior – his/her conscientiousness, the will to achieve an aim, perseverance and motivation of activity. The personality is determined by both the environmental and genetic factors, and these factors in different proportions explain athletic behavior. Variables such as age, gender, race and the culture of the examined individual, do not influence essential

Literature 1. World Anti-Doping Code. (2015). World anti-doping code . Canada: World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved July 30, 2017, from https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/the-code/world-anti-doping-code . 2. Soltanabadi S., Tojari F., Manouchehri J. (2014). Validity and reliability of measurement instruments of doping attitudes and doping behavior in Iranian professional athletes of team sports. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 4, 280-286. 3. Morente-Sánchez J., Femia-Marzo P., Zabala M. (2014). Cross-cultural adaptation and

). However, the potential impact of non-mandatory activities (such as sport) relies on people freely deciding to start and, afterwards, continue taking part in them ( Watson et al., 2003 ). This highlights the need to study the effect of athletes’ motivations to participate in sport, and how they relate to personal and social responsibility levels ( Catalano et al., 1999 ; Wright and Craig, 2011 ). According to Ward and Parker (2012) , the positive development of young people is greatly influenced by the self-determination levels, which has the potential to provide a

. Barrault D., B. Achou, R. Sorel (1983) Accidents et incidents survenus au cours des compétitions de judo. Symb., 15: 144-152. 5. Barsottinni D., A.E. Guimaraes, P.R. de Morais (2006) Relationship between techniques and injuries among judo practitioners. Rev. Bras. Med. Esporte, 12: 48e-51e. 6. Beis K., P. Tsaklis, W. Pieter, G. Abatzides (2001) Taekwondo competition injuries in Greek young and adult athletes. Eur. J. Sports Trauma. Relat. Res., 23: 130-136. (Abstract). 7. Caine D.J., C.G. Caine, K.J. Lindner (1996) The epidemiologic approach to sports injuries. In: D

-perceptual attributes of male and female tennis players of varying ability levels. Psychology of Motor Behaviour and Sport: North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. University of Maryland , .134-142 Christenson G. N., Winkelstein A. N. (1988) Visual skills of athletes versus nonathletes: development of a sports vision testing battery. Journal of American Optometric Association , 59(9): 666-675. Ciućmański B., Wątroba J. (2005) Training selected visual perception abilities and the efficiency footballers. (in Polish) In: Gry zespołowe w wychowaniu

References Bø K, Sundgot-Borgen J. Prevalence of stress and urge urinary incontinence in elite athletes and controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001; 33: 1797-1802 Bø K. Pelvic Floor muscle training is effective in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, but how does it work? Int Urogynecol J, 2004; 15: 76-84 Bø K, Sundgot-Borgen J. Are former female elite athletes more likely to experience urinary incontinence later in life than non-athletes? Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2010; 20: 100-104 Carls C. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in high school and

. Relationship between attitudes to health, body weight and physical activity and level of physical activity in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutr , 1999. 2(1A): 97-103. Martinez-Gonzales M. A., Varo J. J., Santos J. L., et al. Prevalance of physical activity during leisure time in the European Union. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 2001. 33: 1142-1146. Menotti A., Amici E., Gambeli G. C., et al. Life expectancy in Italian track and field athletes. Eur J Epidemiol , 1990. 6: 257-260. Molarius A., Berglund K., Eriksson Ch., et al

Introduction An appropriate dietary regime meeting athletes’ individual requirements is a prerequisite of their health, optimal function and physical fitness. Together with genetic advantages and efficient training, a well-designed diet frequently determines their performance and ultimately decides about their success or failure in sport (IOC, 2010; Kreider et al., 2010 ). A daily food energy intake that is insufficient or exceeds energy expenditure may adversely affect the athlete’s body mass, composition and function, and impair performance. When more energy