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Background: Few data is available concerning the association between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and red cell distribution width (RDW). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between RDW and atherosclerosis of the vessels other than coronary arteries in patients who had undergone digital substraction angiography (DSA). Methods: This study included 730 patients who had undergone DSA. Patients were divided into two groups according to their angiographic images. The association between RDW and atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries was analyzed. The relationship between atherosclerosis and smoking, hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), hs-CRP, hemoglobin, white blood cell (WBC), triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels was assessed. Results: Atherosclerosis was observed more common in male and patients with older age, HT, DM and smoking (p<0.001). hs-CRP and WBC levels were both in significantly positive association with atherosclerosis (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the RDW levels, hemoglobin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results seem to demonstrate that older age, male gender, HT, DM and smoking are powerful risk factors for PAD. In contrast to the previous reports, RDW levels are found not to be associated with atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries.

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