leonina and Ascaris suum infected mice with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum antigens. Int. J. Parasitol., 25: 731–739 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(94)00187-S  De-La-Muela, N., Hernández-De-Luján, S., Ferre, I. (2001): Helminths of wild boar in Spain. J. Wildlife Dis., 37: 840–843  Dubinský, P. (1993): Ascariosis of pigs. In Jurášek, V., Dubinský, P.
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The number of parasites followed the rapid growing of human population worldwide, not only in developing but also in developed countries. Many of them are diagnosed in children and adolescents. The occurrence of selected intestinal endoparasites in children coming from areas with low hygienic and socioeconomic status was studied. Out of 81 faecal samples examined, 46 (56.8 %) were positive for presence of intestinal parasites. From helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be the leading parasite (24.7 %), followed by Trichuris trichiura (17.3 %). Tapeworm Taenia spp. eggs were detected in 4.9 % of examined children. From protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in 36 children (44.4 %) and Giardia intestinalis in 20 children (24.7 %). The occurrence of these epidemiologically low risky parasites in Roma children population suggests low hygienic standard in the Roma settlements.
Ascaris suum is a parasitic nematode of pigs with worldwide distribution causing economic loses due do health interactions, reduced feed to gain efficiency and loses due to liver condemnation at abattoirs. To survey the herd prevalence of ascariosis in Slovakia, the presence of milk spots in liver of slaughtered pigs is monitored at abattoirs. According to shortened life-span of fattening pigs, this is the most suitable screening method for efficiency evaluation of control measures. Within the monitoring in 2000–2009, in total 279 herds (19 017 animals) were examined. During this period, marked decrease in occurrence of pathological lesions, resp. milk spots, in liver was recorded (from 39.51 % to 6.85 %) in investigated herds.
 Antolová, D., Reiterová, K., Dubinský, P. (2006): The role of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in circulation of trichinellosis, toxocarosis and ascariosis in the Slovak Republic. Helmithologia, 43: 92–97 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-006-0018-9  ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005): Toxicological profile for lead (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service  Bishayi, B., Sengupta, M. (2006): Synergism in immunotoxicological effects due to repeated combined
 Antolová, D., Reiterová, K., Dubinský P. (2006): The role of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the circulation of trichinellosis, toxocarosis and ascariosis in the Slovak Republic. Helminthologia, 43: 92–97 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-006-0018-9  Dinkel, A., Von Nickisch-Rosenegk, M., Bilger, B., Merli, M., Lucius, R., Romig, T. (1998): Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in the definitive host: coprodiagnosis by PCR as an alternative to necropsy. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36: 1871–1876  Dubinský, P., Svobodová, V., Turčeková, L’., Literák, I., Martínek
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-host interactions were tested on model of Ascaris suum helminth infection. Ascariosis is a widespread parasitosis in which the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects about 1 billion people worldwide, and also affects innumerable pigs across the globe ( Betson et al ., 2014 ). Interference of this nematode species with heavy metals is very likely. Contingent upon epidemiological potential and local phylogeography the natural cross-transmission of Ascaris spp. between pig and human hosts takes place in developing and developed countries ( Šnábel et al ., 2012 ; Betson et al