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References 1. Barret KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Section VI: Cardiovascular Physiology. In: Ganong’s review of medical physiology, 23rd Edition. Ed. McGraw Hill, Singapore, pp 510-512, 2010. 2. O’Rourke MF, Staessen JA, Vlachopoulos C, Duprez D, Plante GE. Clinical applications of arterial stiffness; definitions and reference values. Am J Hypertens 15: 426-444, 2002. 3. Yki-Jarvinen H, Westerbacka J. Insulin resistance, arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Adv Cardiol 44: 252-260, 2007. 4. Zieman SJ, Melenovsky V, Kass DA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology

J. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes : A Systematic Review. Hypertension 45: 1035-1041, 2005. 13. Elobeid MA, Padilla MA, McVie T et al. Missing data in randomized clinical trials for weight loss: scope of the problem, state of the field, and performance of statistical methods. PLoS ONE 4: e6624, 2009. 14. Barinas-Mitchell E, Kuller LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K et al. Effect of weight loss and nutritional intervention on arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29: 2218-2222, 2006. 15. Miyaki A

, Kimm SY. Childhood obesity. Lancet. May 15 2010; 375(9727):1737—1748. 5. Bekkers MBM, Brunekreef B, Koppelman GH, et al. BMI and Waist Circumference; Cross-Sectional and Prospective Associations with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol in 12-Year-Olds. PLoS One. 2012;7(12): e51801.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051801. 6. Suláková T1, Janda J, Cerná J, Janštová V, Feber J. Assessment of arterial stiffness from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with diabetes mellitus type-1 (DMT1). J Hum Hypertens. 2012;26(6):357-64. doi:10.1038/jhh.2011.38. Epub 2011 May 5. 7

References Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D et al. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 2588-2608. O'Rourke M. Arterial aging: pathophysiological principles. Vascular Medicine 2007; 12: 329-341. Osler W. The principles and practice of medicine. Appleton, 3 rd edition, 1898. Kingwell BA, Medley TL, Waddell TK, Cole TJ, Dart AM, Jennings GL. Large artery stiffness: structural and genetic aspects. Clin Exper Pharmacol Physiol 2001; 28: 1040

References Anonymous (2010). The reference values for arterial stiffness’ collaboration. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: “Establishing normal and reference values”. Eur. Heart J., 31 (19), 2338-2350. Benetos, A., Gautier, S., Ricard, S., Topouchian, J., Asmar, R., Poirier, O., Cambien, F. (1996). Influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II Type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms on aortic stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Circulation, 94 (4), 698-703. Bone, R

Association. Diabetes Care 40: 136- 54, 2017. 5. Serhiyenko VA, Serhiyenko LM, Serhiyenko AA. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: A review. In: Omega-3: Dietary sources, biochemistry and impact on human health. Moore SJ (ed). New York: Nova Science Publishers, pp 79-154, 2017. 6. Townsend RR, Wilkinson IB, Schiffrin EL et al. Recommendations for improving and standardizing vascular research on arterial stiffness: a scientific statement from the American heart association. Hypertension 66: 698-722, 2015. 7

References 1. Djaberi R, Beishuizen ED, Pereira AM. Noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 51: 1581-1593, 2008. 2. Lee HY, Oh BH. Aging and arterial stiffness. Circ J 74: 2257-2262, 2010. 3. Schram MT, Henry RMA, van Dijk RAJM et al. Increased central artery stiffness in impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes: The Hoorn study. Hypertension 43: 176-181, 2004. 4. Kim ES, Moon SD, Kim HS et al. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with increased

REFERENCES 1. BOUTOUYRIE P, FLISER D, GOLDSMITH D, COVIC A, WIECEK A, ORTIZ A et al . Assessment of arterial stiffness for clinical and epidemiological studies: methodological considerations for validation and entry into the European renal and cardiovascular medicine registry . Nephrol Dial Transplant (2014) 29:232-239. 2. PALOMBO C, KOZAKOVA M. Arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk: Pathophysiologic mechanism and emerging clinical indications . Vascul. Pharmacol (2015), . 3. MATTACE-RASO FUS

References 1. Norhammar A, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women. Diabetologia 56: 1-9, 2013. 2. Van Popele NM, Grobbee DE, Bots ML et al. Association between arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke 32: 454- 460, 2001. 3. Djaberi R, Beishuizen ED, Pereira AM. Noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 51: 1581-1593, 2008. 4. Urbina EM, Gao Z, Khouri PR, Martin LJ, Dolan LM. Insulin resistance and

Introduction Several studies have shown exercise to be related to advanced arterial stiffness ( Okamoto and Masuhara, 2007 ; Schmidt‐Trucksass et al., 2000 ). In reality there are many forms of exercise. The level of arterial stiffness has been shown to be low in individuals undertaking regular aerobic exercise compared to those not taking aerobic exercise ( Okamoto and Masuhara, 2007 ). The pulse rate is defined by increased arterial stiffness or compliance, and this has an effect on the myocardial function capacity and coronary perfusion. In both conditions