Anna Szczucińska, Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Przemysław Niedzielski
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 Saibi H, Mesbah M, Moulla AS, Guendouz AH, Ehara S. Principal component, chemical, bacteriological, and isotopic analyses of Oued-Souf groundwaters (revised). Environ Earth Sci. 2016;75:272. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4878-5.
 Dłużewski M, Kozłowski R, Szczucińska A. Potential use of alluvial groundwater for irrigation in aridzones - Mhamid Oasis (S Morocco). Ecol Chem Eng S. 2017;24(1).129-140. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2017-0010.
 Belkhiri L, Mouni L, Boudoukha A. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in an
Salih Lachache, Mohamed Nabou, Touhami Merzouguui and Abdelouahab Amroune
hydrogéologique de la région de Béchar [Hydrogeological study of the Bechar region]. Rapport interne, DHWB. Béchar, Algérie pp. 170.
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The dam of Hammam Boughrara is an embankment dam built in a transboundary basin, between Algeria and Morocco; it was type-approved and delivered in 1998. This dam was supposed to solve the lack of drinking water in Oran (Algeria's second largest city) and enhance the agricultural perimeter of the area. It should regulate an annual water volume of 59 million m3. However, the northwest Algeria has experienced a fairly severe drought since the 80s. This article aims to show the impact of this drought on the amount of surface water that can be mobilized by this dam. The rainfall series recorded at four stations, located within the basin of the dam, were examined using the proportional deviation from the average, the running average, the frequency analysis, the Pita’s index and the standardized precipitation index. These methods have shown a significant decrease of rain, starting from the hydrological year 1975/1976. These same approaches were also used to analyse series of flows spread over a longer period. This fact revealed three periods of drought which are 1940–1945, 1955–1967 and the most recent one highlighted by the rainfall series, starts at the year 1975/1976. The regularized water volume of the dam, calculated from the series of flow rates, is around 37 million m3. This value reflects a deficit of 40% of the regularized volume predicted by the designers of the dam.
Mohamed Zouidi, Amine Habib Borsali, Ayoub Allam and Raphael Gros
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Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Anna Szczucińska
In arid zones, the availability of fresh water is usually very limited because of high salinity, which greatly limits their use for irrigation purposes. High mineralization of water used for irrigation leads to increased soil salinity. The aim of the study was to examine the potential use of alluvial groundwater for irrigation in arid zones. The works were conducted in the Middle Draa Valley in southern Morocco (the Mhamid Oasis) in October 2015. Water samples of alluvial groundwater were collected for laboratory analysis from 42 wells located in the oasis. In order to determine the possibility to use the water for irrigation purposes, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR), magnesium hazards (MH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were assessed. EC values, exceeding 3000 μS·cm-1 in all the samples, classify the water as unsuitable for irrigation. MH and the KR indexes show that 30% of water samples represent levels making them unsuitable for irrigation. SAR confirms the very high degree of susceptibility of the analyzed waters to salinity hazard. The PI index of these waters is moderate, however in terms of sodium content they can be deemed suitable for irrigation purposes. It has been found that even within a small area of the oasis, a very large differentiation in the alluvial groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes occurs.
Svetlana Volodarets, Aleksandr Glukhov and Irina Zaitseva
The study of phytoncide activity of biogenic volatile organic compounds of woody plants is one of the most important areas of research in plant ecology in urban lands. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependence of the phytoncide activity of some woody plant species from meteorological factors in the urban environment in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The objectives of the investigation were 28 species of trees and shrubs. The air temperature is indicated to be a major factor for drought-resistant and some medium drought-resistant species (Populus simonii Carrière, Armeniaca vulgaris L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck). The phytoncide activity of low and medium drought-resistant species (Viburnum opulus L., Acer sacharinnum L.) depends on air humidity and total monthly precipitation. The obtained results make it possible to predict changes in the phytoncide activity of woody plants, when selecting the assortment of species for phyto-optimization of technogenic environment.
Groundwater samples from Turonian aquifer of Béchar region were evaluated as drinking and irrigation water sources. physicochemical parameters including pH, EC, TH, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, SO42– and NO3− were determined for 16 water sampling points. These characterizations show that the groundwater is fresh to brackish, slightly alkaline and the major ions are Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl− and SO42–. According to WHO standards, 50% of the analysed water are suitable as a drinking source while the other samples are not in compliance with drinking water standards. This non-compliance is basically due to the high concentrations of Na+, Cl−, and SO42– requesting further treatment to reach the stringent standards. According to the results of nitrate concentrations, anthropogenic source seems to influence the groundwater quality. The present study shows that Béchar groundwater may represent an important drinking and irrigation water source. However, a specific management strategy should be adapted in order to avoid the contamination by anthropogenic sources.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Sahelian Goats (SG) with Anglo-Nubian (AN) bucks on growth performance of kids and milk production of does during the pre-weaning period. Forty four suckled and hand-milked does were randomized and divided into two groups [Sahelian goat (SG; n = 22) and Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goat (ANSG; n = 22)] and ninety kids of three breeds were allocated to three groups [(SG; n = 30), (ANSG; n = 30) and backcross breeds kids (AN (ANSG); n = 30)]. The does and their offspring were kept in a pen in which they stayed indoor for 45 days before they were allowed to outdoor system as the weather was suitable. Every category received a nutritional supplementation depending on the annual season (rainy, dry cold and dry hot season). The body weight gain of the kids and the average daily milk yield of the does were recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age.
The birth weight and live weight of kids were significantly affected by the breed type (P ≤ 0.001). The body weights of kids were greater in AN (ANSG), and ANSG group (P ≤ 0.001), compared to SG at all ages. The growth performance was the greatest in AN (ANSG) kids until 30 days (113.70 ± 15.79 g) and until 100 days, 91.23 ± 8.12 g (P ≤ 0.001). Moderate correlation was found between overall kids birth weight and live-body weight at 60 days of age (r = 0.52). Similarly, daily milk yield was highly affected by breed type (P ≤ 0.001) throughout the observation period, while the effect of sex on daily milk production was not significant. The total milk yield at 100 days has increased of 103% in ANSG over SG. Results of this study indicate that crossbreeding Sahelian Goat with Anglo-Nubian goat breed improved their growth rate and milk production.
Fatima Zahra Merzougui, Ahmed Makhloufi and Touhami Merzougui
The article analyses the water quality of the Lower Cretaceous aquifer in the Beni-Ounif syncline. To this end, 42 samples were taken for physico-chemical analysis and 28 for microbiological analysis in March, May and October 2017 from 14 sampling points. The results of physico-chemical analysis were processed by multi-variety statistical analysis methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) coupled to hydro chemical methods: Piper diagram.
The PCA allowed us to explore the connections between physico-chemical parameters and similarities between samples and to identify the most appropriate physico-chemical elements to describe water quality.
The HCA allowed us to classify the sampling points according to the similarity between them and thus reduce them for the next follow-up analysis.
Waters of the syncline are characterized by medium to low mineralization (320 < EC < 7600 μS∙cm–1 and 200 < RS < 4020 mg∙dm−3) and hardness of between 22 and 123°f. Only 19% of the samples show NO3 concentrations exceeding the Algerian standards.
Microbiologically, the study reports the presence of bacteria: coliforms (<8 CFU∙0.1 dm−3), Streptococcus D (<1100 CFUꞏ0.1 dm–3), Clostridium sulphito-reducer of vegetative form (<90 CFUꞏ0.02 dm–3) and sporulate (<4 CFUꞏ0.02 dm–3), total aerobic mesophilic flora at 22°C (<462 CFUꞏ0.001 dm–3) and at 37°C (<403 CFUꞏ0.001 dm–3). It must be noted that no presence of thermo-tolerant coliforms is observed.
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a valuable crop for millions of small scale farmers around the tropics. Despite its importance, the production of the crop in semi-arid tropics is constrained by shorter rain duration and low soil nutrient status. The present studies was carried out during the 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons to study the influence of cow dung application on the yield and yield components of two groundnut varieties in the region. Treatments consisted of factorial combination of two groundnut varieties (Ex-Dakar and RMP-12) and three cow dung levels (0, 15 and 30 t ha−1) making a total of six treatment combinations. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The findings of this research revealed that Ex-Dakar variety performed better than RMP-12 in all the parameters measured. Application of cow dung increased the number of pods plant−1, pod yield and grain yield of the crop and was optimum at the rate of 15 t ha−1. Thus, Ex-Dakar variety could be suggested for increased groundnut production in the study area. Application of cow dung at the rate of 15 t ha−1 was optimum for groundnut production in the study area.