The array of archival maps from the 19th and 20th centuries is very large and, in order to assess their reliability for a particular analysis, some kind of evaluation form must be used. The proposed evaluation form comprises both formal and quantitative criteria, enriched with the maps’ elaboration circumstances, which may influence their reliability. These factors are also applied at both the spatial and attribute levels of information. Guidelines include: the scope of content, the map’s mathematical precision, the descriptive information correctness, the time reference of the content, and the information transfer efficiency.
The paper presents analysis results concerning changes in the range of areas of surface and transitional retention, here corresponding with wetlands, in two small lake catchments in the western part of West Polesie. The cartometric research was performed on maps covering the period from the 19th to the early 21st century. The analyses were referred to the modern state of investigation recorded on orthophotomaps in data bases disclosed in Geoportal Krajowy and in the Google Earth Pro application. Lake surface retention showed no substantial changes, and the differences result from the scale of maps used in the study, and therefore from the degree of detail of the presented objects. In the catchment of Lake Czarne Gościnieckie it occupied from 13.61 to 15.64% of its area, and in the catchment of Lake Brzeziczno from 0.96 to 1.28%. The greatest discrepancies in the area of wetlands result from the cartographic method of presentation, and generalisation of maps. In the catchment of Lake Czarne Gościnieckie, areas of transitional retention could be identified on 11 out of 13 maps, and in the catchment of Lake Brzeziczno on 12. In the case of the former catchment, transitional retention occupies from 17.35 to 34.00% of its area, and in the catchment of Brzeziczno from 4.81 to 24.00%. Such different surface areas of wetlands measured on maps, however, do not signify evident tendencies for change. Over the last 200 years, no substantial changes occurred in the studied catchments regarding the range of surface waters and wetlands, as confirmed by field research conducted in the years 2006-2012. The quantity and quality of maps and the variability of their scales encourage a careful interpretation of obtained information. In such a case, it is necessary to supplement cartographic analyses with investigating procedures of map preparation, and also to collect written documents concerning the entire area.
.g. Luchter 1997 ; Małuszyńska 2000 ), and architectural ( Przegon 2011 ). With an increase in the availability of data from the land registration ( Łowicki 2008a ; Łowicki 2008b ), and especially Pan-European data on LULC such as Corine Land Cover or Urban Atlas, the number of publications covering the whole country is growing ( Łowicki, Mizgajski 2013 ; Woch, Woch 2014 ; Nalej 2016 ; Borowska-Stefańska et al. 2018 ). It is also worth emphasising the role of research using both archivalmaps and contemporary vector data bases, which allows the analysis of very long
The aim of this study was to document spatial changes in the size of the Spa Park in Inowrocław from the 19th century onwards based on archival maps as well as field research and observations of the current status. Towns providing a highly specialised health resort and spa services, such as Inowrocław, need large expanses of green areas as public spaces for outdoor therapy for spa town visitors and patients. In Inowrocław, this may not be limited only to the surroundings of the greatest asset of this spa town - its graduation towers. The fascinating history of the area and planning decisions concerning green areas over the years have brought many benefits to the town, which also extend outside the scope of health resort services. This article presents the multi-faceted changes and transformations of this area along with the plans and intended uses.
The crowd-sourcing approach should be implemented into a new historical geoportal of Poland due to its increasing potential in WebGIS. Registered users will be able to acquire spatial data from various map series. As it requires feature class harmonization, a common symbol classification should be proposed. It will be based on chosen topographic maps of Polish land from the 19th and 20th centuries. Feature classes derived from archival maps will be standardized and reclassified, but with no information lost. This will be done in four steps which require: data acquisition, map content harmonization, feature class typification and attribute table elaboration. In addition, four methods of data harmonization can be distinguished: symbol sequence, semantic analogies, spatial relations and a combined method. The paper covers the elaboration of two thematic layers - roads and railways based on three topographic maps (Austrian 1:75 000, German 1:100 000, Russian 1: 126 000).
Maps, depicting the warfare, are elaborated according to the rules developed over the years. Although, they are not free of errors. The authors draw our attention to the diversity of methods related to the cartographic presentations, which are shown on the historical maps. This is quite understandable, because every such a map introduces an individual point of view on the historical facts. It is noted, that the most commonly used methods are the qualitative ones, among which, for instance, first of all, the method of signature is frequently used.
In the case of historical maps displaying an event in the specific sequence of times, a loss of cartographic information always occur. This is connected both with the complexity of historical facts and with the difficulty in reading a map, which should present the dynamics of this phenomenon in a complete way. The dynamic variables, such as the time of exposure, duration, frequency, order, degree of change and synchronisation, should be taken into account on the maps of warfare.
The use of information technology makes it possible to develop not only the simple maps presenting the course of warfare in the statistic and schematic ways, but also the maps, which are rich in various types of multimedia information.
Multimedia cartographic presentations can be enriched with the photos and panoramas showing the direct effects of warfare and the pseudo three-dimensional visualization showing the battle from a selected direction. The proprietary software let to combine the sequence of photos into a presentation, allowing to take a virtual tour of the areas directly affected by the hostilities. Network services, such as WMS, WFS, WCS, provide the integrated data from the different sources for us. So, we can connect the archival maps with the contemporary satellite images, defining, thus, the location of a specific place in the terrain.
The authors do not cover the issue of complexity connected with the elaboration of maps presenting the combat operations. The most important problems, which have not been discussed in this article, are the following ones: lack of base maps from the period to which the presented issues related, deliberate distortion of map contents, historical and cartographic imprecisions presented on the maps, appropriate selection of the methods of cartographic presentation related to the phenomena, which are presented on the maps.
Channels of Czadeczka and Krężelka rivers (Beskidzie Śląski Mts) are at present subjected to regulation because of which these rivers have lost their natural character, partially still preserved. The reasons for the river regulation have been analysed. Using archival maps, the buildings erection time has been analysed on valley floors, in the immediate vicinity of river channels for the period 1790-2012. Next, the distribution of existing buildings has been compared with hydraulic structures in the channels developed in order to regulate the Czadeczka and the Krężelka reaches, such as: concrete and stone embankments reinforcing the channel banks, check dams on channel bottoms. Results indicate a strong correlation between the number of buildings on valley floors in the 20th century and channel regulation. The mechanism of destroying rare, preserved natural river reaches is based on irrational permission allowing construction of buildings in areas threatened by floods and lateral erosion of rivers. Consequently, the inhabitants, in fear of floods and erosion of land or house foundations, seek river regulation that gives them a false sense of security. Natural river reaches are destroyed though efficient protection against floods and lateral erosion is still not provided and the range of possible losses increases even more due to continued building erection.
ArchivalMaps, Dissertations Commission of Cultural Landscape No. 8, Commission of Cultural Landscape of Polish Geographical Society , Sosnowiec Giętkowski T., Zachwatowicz M., 2010, Przemiany krajobrazu - czy można uniknąć złudzeń? [Landscape changes - can we avoid illusions?], in: Geograficzne spotkania w drodze. Krok trzeci - Warszawa. Materiały III Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Geografów - Doktorantów, Uniwersytet Warszawski 10-11 października 2008 r. Hagen A., 2002, Multi-method assessment of map similarity, Proceedings of the 5th AGILE Conference on Geographic
://atlasmiast.umk.pl/ ) Historical-topographical Atlas of Silesian Towns ( https://www.herder-institut.de/projekte/laufende-projek-te/historisch-topographischer-atlas-schlesischerstaedte/atlas-miast-slaskich.html ) David Rumsey Map Collection ( http://www.david-rumsey.com/ ) Geoportal – WMS services of orthophotomaps and raster topographic maps ( http://geoportal.gov.pl/ ) The Digital Archive of Lublin ( http://www.lac.lublin.pl/ ) Mapire – The historical map portal ( http://www.mapire.eu/ ) Mapster – archivemaps of Poland and Central Europe ( http://igrek.amzp.pl/ ) Digital Repository of